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Regional power

Leaders of most regional powers during the 2015 G-20 summit

In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power within a geographic region.[1][2] States which wield unrivalled power and influence within a region of the world possess regional hegemony.

Characteristics

Regional powers shape the polarity of a regional area. Typically, regional powers have capabilities which are important in the region but do not have capabilities at a global scale. Slightly contrasting definitions differ as to what makes a regional power. The European Consortium for Political Research defines a regional power as:

"A state belonging to a geographically defined region, dominating this region in economic and military terms, able to exercise hegemonic influence in the region and considerable influence on the world scale, willing to make use of power resources and recognized or even accepted as the regional leader by its neighbours".[1]

The German Institute of Global and Area Studies states that a regional power must:[2]

  • form part of a definable region with its own identity
  • claim to be a regional power (self-image as a regional power)
  • exert decisive influence on the geographic extension of the region as well as on its ideological construction
  • dispose over comparatively high military, economic, demographic, political and ideological capabilities
  • be well integrated into the region
  • define the regional security agenda to a high degree
  • be appreciated as a regional power by other powers in the region and beyond, especially by other regional powers
  • be well connected with regional and global forums

Regional powers

Below are states that have been described as regional powers by international relations and political science academics, analysts, or other experts. These states to some extent meet the criteria to have regional power status, as described above. Different experts have differing views on exactly which states are regional powers. States are arranged by their region, and in alphabetic order.

Africa

North America

Canada, despite being a middle power, is not a regional power because it is militarily secured by U.S. hegemony and financially comfortable by its dependence on a robust U.S. economy.[9] The United States is the primary geopolitical force in the Americas and the Western world.

South America

In the past, Spain and Portugal were the dominant powers in the region but following decolonization in the first half of the 19th century, the major powers became Brazil and Argentina.

Asia

Historically, China was the dominant power in East Asia. But, at the beginning of the early 20th century, the Empire of Japan became the dominant force of Asia in World War I as one of the Allied powers. With economic turmoil, Japan's expulsion from the League of Nations, and its interest in expansion on the mainland, Japan became one of the three main Axis powers in World War II.

Since the late 20th century, regional alliances, economic progress, and contrasting military power have changed the strategic and regional power balance in Asia. In recent years, a re-balancing of military and economic power among countries such as China and India has resulted in significant changes in the geopolitics of Asia. China and Japan have also gained greater influence over regions outside Asia. With close economic and military ties with the United States, South Korea and Japan were seen as major regional powers "containing" the communist regimes during the Cold War.

East Asia

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Western Asia


Europe

France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom are regarded as the Big Four of Europe.[62][63] Historically, dominant powers in this region created large colonial empires worldwide (such as the British, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German and Dutch empires). Most of the continent is now integrated as a consequence of the enlargement of the European Union.

Oceania

See also

Notes

^ Considered a great power
^ Member of G20
^ Member of G-15
^ Member of D-8
^ Member of N-11
^ Member of CIVETS
^ Member of Pacific Alliance
^ Member of Andean Community
^ Member of ACS

References

  1. ^ a b Joachim Betz, Ian Taylor, "The Rise of (New) Regional Powers in Asia, Africa, Latin America..."[dead link], German Overseas Institute & University of St. Andrews, May 2007
  2. ^ a b Martin Beck, The Concept of Regional Power: The Middle East as a Deviant Case?, German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, 11–12 December 2006.
  3. ^ Lynch, David A. (16 August 2010). Trade and Globalization: An Introduction to Regional Trade Agreements. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 9780742566903.
  4. ^ Flemes, Daniel (2010). Regional Leadership in the Global System: Ideas, Interests and Strategies of Regional Powers. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754679127.
  5. ^ a b c d Buzan, Barry (2004). The United States and the Great Powers. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7456-3375-6.
  6. ^ a b c d www.aims.ca Archived 21 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ www.iss.co.za Archived 12 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Southern Africa is home to the other of sub-Saharan Africa's regional powers: South Africa. South Africa is more than just a regional power; it is by far the most developed and economically powerful country in Africa, and now it is able to use that influence in Africa more than during the days of apartheid (white rule), when it was ostracized." See David Lynch, Trade and Globalization (Lanham, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010), p. 51.
  9. ^ Alice Bothwell, "Can Canada Still Be Considered a Middle Power?," Master's Thesis (University of Stellenbosch), p. 34
  10. ^ "Chinese Cyber Information Profusion". internationalpolicydigest.org. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  11. ^ "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century." See Michael Morris, "The Srait of Magellan," in International Straits of the World, edited by Gerard Mangone (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes, 1988), p. 63.
  12. ^ a b "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina." See Tom Nierop, "The Clash of Civilisations," in The Territorial Factor, edited by Gertjan Dijkink and Hans Knippenberg (Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA, 2001), p. 61.
  13. ^ "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can developed their own rules for further managing regional relations." See David Lake, "Regional Hierarchies," in Globalising the Regional, edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 55.
  14. ^ "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community." See Emanuel Adler and Patricia Greve, "Overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance," in Globalising the Regional, edited by Rick Fawn (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 78.
  15. ^ "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina." See Alejandra Ruiz-Dana, Peter Goldschag, Edmundo Claro and Hernan Blanco, "Regional integration, trade and conflicts in Latin America," in Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution, edited by Shaheen Rafi Khan (New York: Routledge, 2009), p. 18.
  16. ^ a b Samuel P. Huntington, "Culture, Power, and Democracy," in Globalization, Power, and Democracy, edited by Marc Plattner and Aleksander Smolar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), p. 6.
  17. ^ ""The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina." See Anestis Papadopoulos, The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 283.
  18. ^ Arnson, Cynthia; Sotero, Paulo. "Brazil as a Regional Power: Views from the Hemisphere" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  19. ^ De Lima, Maria Regina Soares; Hirst, Monica. "Brazil as an intermediate state and regional power: action, choice and responsibilities" (PDF). Chatham House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  20. ^ Wigell, Mikael (19 May 2011). "Assertive Brazil, an emerging power and its implications" (PDF). Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  21. ^ Flemes, Daniel. "Brazil's strategic options in a multi-regional world order" (PDF). German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Retrieved 16 April 2012.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ Schenoni, Luis. "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais V. 2 N. 2 Jul-Dez 2015 P. 215-232. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  23. ^ "Living With The Giants - TIME". Time. 18 April 2005. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  24. ^ "China: Global/Regional Power 2006". au.af.mil. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
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  26. ^ "Correspondents Report - China: paramount power in South East Asia". abc.net.au. 21 May 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) www.aseanfocus.com
  28. ^ a b U.S. Policy to Asia for Regional Powers in New Science and Technology: China, Russia, Japan and Korea with Nuclear Potential, allacademic.com
  29. ^ Holliday, IAN (2006). "Japan and the Myanmar Stalemate: Regional Power and Resolution of a Regional Problem| Japanese Journal of Political Science | Cambridge Core". Japanese Journal of Political Science. 6 (3): 393. doi:10.1017/S1468109905001969.
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  31. ^ "South Korea: A Major Regional Power" (PDF). Journal of Sociology. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  32. ^ a b c Buzan & Wæver, Regions and Powers (2003, p. 55)
  33. ^ Perkovich, George. "Is India a Major Power?" (PDF). The Washington Quarterly (27.1 Winter 2003–04). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  34. ^ Encarta - Great Powers Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite
  35. ^ Dilip Mohite (Spring 1993). "Swords and Ploughshares- India: The Fourth Great Power?". Vol. 7, No. 3. Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS). Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. ^ Emmers, Ralf. "Regional hegemonies and the exercise of power in Southeast Asia: A study of Indonesia and Vietnam" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 17 March 2004. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  37. ^ Emmers, Ralf. "Regional hegemonies and the exercise of power in Southeast Asia: A study of Indonesia and Vietnam" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, ngày 17 tháng 3 năm 2004. Truy cập ngày 17 tháng 4 năm 2017.
  38. ^ ""Iran is a strong regional power, in a far better shape than Pakistan because f its economic capabilities, rich mineral and energy resources, and internal stability, added to its far greater geostrategic importance." In Hooman Peimani, Nuclear Proliferation in the Indian Subcontinent (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2000), p. 30.
  39. ^ "The Eight Great Powers of 2017 - The American Interest". The American Interest. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  40. ^ Haaretz (1 March 2016). "Israel May Be Eighth-ranked in Global Power, but It's Really Not Much Fun". Haaretz. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
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  49. ^ "The Economist: "Turkish foreign policy: Ottoman dreamer", 5 November 2011". The Economist. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
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  51. ^ "Erdoğan's Moment", cover story in the Time magazine issue of 21–28 November 2011. (Vol. 178 No. 21.) "Erdoğan's Way" was the cover title in the editions of Europe, Asia and South Pacific.
  52. ^ "Egypt's arms fair boosts military's image as regional superpower". RFI.
  53. ^ "Regional power clash? Egypt and Iran vie for influence in Gaza". Jewish News Syndicate.
  54. ^ "Egypt's Rise in the African Political Landscape: A Regional Power?". The New Turkey.
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  58. ^ "Africa Superpower Contenders: Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt".
  59. ^ "Egypt's Expanding Regional Role and Move toward More Power". Egypt Today.
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  63. ^ Aghion, P.; Durlauf, S.N. (2005). Handbook of Economic Growth. Elsevier. p. 788. ISBN 9780444520418. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
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  66. ^ Gabriele Abbondanza, Italy as a Regional Power: the African Context from National Unification to the Present Day (Rome: Aracne, 2016)
  67. ^ "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, Italy and the European Union (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
  68. ^ "Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power." See Italy: Justice System and National Police Handbook, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2009), p. 9.
  69. ^ "L'Italie : un destin européen". ladocumentationfrancaise.fr. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  70. ^ "France, Germany, Britain – Responses of Traditional Regional Powers to Rising Regions and Rivals" (PDF). giga-hamburg.de. Retrieved 5 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
  71. ^ "Australia as an Asia-Pacific Regional Power: Friendships in Flux? (Hardback) - Routledge". routledge.com. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  72. ^ "Should Australia Think Big or Small in Foreign Policy?". foreignminister.gov.au. Retrieved 5 March 2017.

Bibliography

  • Buzan, Barry; Wæver, Ole (2003), Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 55, ISBN 978-0-521-89111-0
  • Godehardt, Nadine; Nabers, Dirk, eds. (2011), Regional Orders and Regional Powers, Routledge, pp. 193–208, ISBN 978-1-136-71891-5
  • Stewart-Ingersoll, Robert; Frazier, Derrick (2012), Regional Powers and Security Orders: A Theoretical Framework, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-56919-4