Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Filter by Categories
Announcement
Basketball
Boston Marathon
Boys and Girls Champs
Caribbean
Caribbean Premier League
Celebrity
Comedy
Cricket
Earthquake Haiti
Elections
Games
Gibson-McCook Relays
Gold Cup
Investment
Jamaica
Manning Cup
Marketplace
News
Olympics
Prayer
Reggae Music
Religion/Faith
Soccer
Sports
Store
Tennis
Track and Field
Trinidad & Tobago
Uncategorized
United States
World
World Championships
World Cup
Yowlink

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP /ˈɑːrsɛp/ AR-sep) is a free trade agreement among the Asia-Pacific nations of Australia, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.[2] The 15 member countries account for about 30% of the world's population (2.2 billion people) and 30% of global GDP ($26.2 trillion), making it the largest trade bloc in history.[3] It is the first free trade agreement among the East Asian China, Japan, and South Korea, three of the four largest economies in Asia.[4] As of 2 November 2021, six of the ten ASEAN and four of the five non-ASEAN signatories have deposited their instruments of ratification of the RCEP with the Secretary-General of ASEAN. The trade pact is projected to enter force on 1 January 2022.[5][6]

The RCEP includes a mix of high-,[note 1] middle-,[note 2] and low-income countries.[note 3] It is expected to eliminate about 90% of the tariffs on imports between its signatories within 20 years of coming into force, and establish common rules for e-commerce, trade, and intellectual property.[4] Several analysts predicted that it would offer significant economic gains for signatory nations, boost post-pandemic economic recovery, as well as "pull the economic centre of gravity back towards Asia, with China poised to take the lead in writing trade rules for the region," leaving the U.S. behind in economic and political affairs.[note 4] Reactions from others were neutral or negative,[note 5] with some analysts saying that the economic gains from the trade deal would be modest.[24][25][26][27] The RCEP has been criticized for ignoring labor, human rights, and environmental sustainability issues.[7][28][29]

The RCEP conceived at the 2011 ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia, while negotiations formally launched during the 2012 ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.[30][7][31] The treaty was formally signed on 15 November 2020 at the virtual ASEAN Summit hosted by Vietnam. India, which took part in the initial negotiations but later decided to opt out, was invited to join the bloc at any time. Any other country or separate customs territory in the region can apply to join the pact 18 months after it takes force.[32][33][34]

Membership

Signatories

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km2)
Population Nominal GDP
(millions of US$)
GDP per cap.
(Nominal, US$)
PPP GDP
(millions of Int$)
GDP per cap.
(PPP, Int$)
HDI Currency
Official languages Leaders
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
Canberra 7,692,024 25,698,300 1,482,282 55,215 1,296,075 50,817 0.938 Australian dollar ($)
(AUD)
None (de jure)
English (de facto)
Monarch: Elizabeth II
Governor-General: David Hurley
Prime Minister: Scott Morrison
Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei
Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace
Negara Brunei Darussalam
نڬارا بروني دارالسلام
Bandar Seri Begawan 5,765 459,500 11,991 28,740 33,756 76,567 0.845 Brunei dollar ($)
(BND)
Malay
English
Monarch: Hassanal Bolkiah
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា
Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa
Royaume du Cambodge
Phnom Penh 181,035 15,626,444 24,307 1,308 69,884 4,022 0.581 Cambodian riel ()
(KHR)
Khmer Monarch: Norodom Sihamoni
Prime Minister: Hun Sen
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Beijing 9,596,961 1,400,050,000 14,860,775 10,839 25,102,916 18,158 0.758 Renminbi (Chinese yuan, ¥)
(CNY)
Standard Chinese
see also: Languages of China
General Secretary and President: Xi Jinping
Premier: Li Keqiang
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia
Jakarta 1,910,931 263,510,000 1,092,138 3,895 3,481,107 12,432 0.707 Indonesian rupiah (Rp)
(IDR)
Indonesian
see also: Languages of Indonesia
President: Joko Widodo
Flag of Japan.svg Japan
日本国
Nihon-koku
Tokyo 377,930 126,760,000 5,063,129 38,281 5,545,884 42,860 0.915 Japanese yen (¥)
(JPY)
None (de jure)
Japanese (de facto)
Monarch: Naruhito
Prime Minister: Fumio Kishida
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea
Republic of Korea
대한민국
大韓民國
Daehan Minguk
Seoul 100,210 51,709,098 1,597,392 29,114 2,127,164 39,446 0.906 South Korean won ()
(KRW)
Korean
Korean Sign Language
President: Moon Jae-in
Prime Minister: Chung Sye-kyun
Flag of Laos.svg Laos
Lao People's Democratic Republic
ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
République démocratique populaire lao
Vientiane 236,800 7,123,205 18,674 2,051 53,626 6,115 0.604 Lao kip ()
(LAK)
Lao
French
General Secretary and President: Thongloun Sisoulith

Prime Minister: Phankham Viphavanh

Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Putrajaya (administrative)
330,803 32,273,000 336,330 9,623 988,993 28,636 0.804 Malaysian ringgit (RM)
(MYR)
Malaysian
English
Monarch: Abdullah
Prime Minister: Ismail Sabri Yaakob
Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar (Burma)
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
Naypyidaw 676,578 54,836,000 74,002 1,374 362,969 6,360 0.584 Burmese kyat (K)
(MMK)
Burmese
see also: Languages of Myanmar
President: Myint Swe
State Administration Council: Min Aung Hlaing
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand
Aotearoa
Wellington 270,467 4,786,710 215,172 41,107 195,103 38,706 0.921 New Zealand dollar ($)
(NZD)
English
Māori
NZ Sign Language
Monarch: Elizabeth II
Governor-General: Cindy Kiro
Prime Minister: Jacinda Ardern
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
Manila 300,000 109,048,269 357,792 3,102 951,224 8,270 0.712 Philippine peso ()
(PHP)
English
Filipino
see also: Languages of the Philippines
President: Rodrigo Duterte
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore
Republic of Singapore
Republik Singapura
新加坡共和国
Xīnjiāpō Gònghéguó
சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு
Ciṅkappūr Kuṭiyaracu
Singapore
(city-state)
719 5,703,600 337,451 58,484 578,204 101,376 0.935 Singapore dollar ($)
(SGD)
English
Malay
Standard Chinese
Tamil
President: Halimah Yacob
Prime Minister: Lee Hsien Loong
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
Kingdom of Thailand
ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Ratcha-anachak Thai
Bangkok 513,120 68,298,000 466,623 6,265 1,296,095 17,749 0.765 Thai baht (฿)
(THB)
Thai Monarch: Vajiralongkorn
Prime Minister: Prayut Chan-o-cha
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Hanoi 331,699 96,208,984 340,602 3,498 1,016,475 10,537 0.704 Vietnamese đồng ()
(VND)
Vietnamese President: Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Prime Minister: Phạm Minh Chính

Ratifications

Country Signatory Ratification
 Australia November 15, 2020 November 2, 2021[36]
 Brunei October 11, 2021[37][38]
 Cambodia October 15, 2021[39]
 China April 15, 2021[40]
 Indonesia
 Japan June 25, 2021[41]
 South Korea
 Laos October 26, 2021[42]
 Malaysia
 Myanmar
 New Zealand November 2, 2021[43]
 Philippines
 Singapore April 9, 2021[44][45]
 Thailand October 28, 2021[46][47][48]
 Vietnam October 29, 2021[46]

Contents

The agreement is intended to reduce tariffs and red tape. It includes unified rules of origin throughout the bloc, which may facilitate international supply chains and trade within the region.[49][50] It also prohibits certain tariffs. It does not focus on labor unions, environmental protection, or government subsidies.[49]

The RCEP is not as comprehensive as the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, another free trade agreement in the region that includes some of the same countries.[4] The RCEP "does not establish unified standards on labour and the environment, or commit countries to open services and other vulnerable areas of their economies."[51]

The tariffs schedule just for Japan is 1,334 pages long.[51]

Projected Value

2020 RCEP-15's share of global GDP (%)

The combined GDP of potential RCEP members surpassed the combined GDP of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) members in 2007. It was suggested that continued economic growth, particularly in China and Indonesia, could see total GDP in the original RCEP membership grow to over US$100 trillion by 2050, roughly double the project size of TPP economies.[52] On 23 January 2017, President Donald Trump signed a memorandum withdrawing the United States from the TPP, a move which was seen to improve the chances of success for RCEP.[53]

According to a 2020 projection, the agreement is expected to enlarge the global economy by US$186 billion.[7][50] According to Peter Petri and Michael Plummer of the Brookings Institution, the RCEP could add $209 billion annually to world incomes, and $500 billion to world trade by 2030, and that "new agreements will make the economies of North and Southeast Asia more efficient, linking their strengths in technology, manufacturing, agriculture, and natural resources."[10] According to computer simulations in a related paper also by Petri and Plummer published by the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE), the RCEP will raise global national incomes in 2030 by an annual $147 billion and $186 billion respectively, "yield especially large benefits for China, Japan, and South Korea and losses for the United States and India, and "will be especially valuable because it strengthens East Asian interdependence, raising trade among members by $428 billion and reducing trade among nonmembers by $48 billion".[11]

The simulations in Petri and Plummer's PIIE paper showed that the RCEP and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) would together more than offset the global negative economic impact of the China-United States trade war, but not the individual losses of China and the United States. Moreover, the incremental value of the CPTPP will be reduced by the trade war (from $147 billion to $121 billion) while the value of RCEP will be increased (from $186 billion to $209 billion). The PIIE working paper also stated that "RCEP will be economically significant with or without India, and indeed more significant than the CPTPP, with especially important benefits for China, Japan, and Korea" and that "RCEP will reorient trade and economic ties away from global linkages toward regionally focused relationships in East Asia."[11]

According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the RCEP is "relatively comprehensive in coverage" and combines existing deals, which brings Asia a step closer to a region-wide trading bloc. The agreement further liberalizes goods and services trade, establishes common rules of origin for all goods traded, establishes commitments regarding government procurement, and aims to establish open and competitive markets. Though the degree of liberalization within RCEP is not as deep as in the CPTPP, RCEP members are projected to gain $174 billion in real income by 2030, equivalent to 0.4% of the members' aggregate GDP. China, Korea and Japan will benefit the most, with likely gains of $85 billion for China, $48 billion for Japan, and $23 billion for Korea. Other significant RCEP gains will accrue to Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.[12] Due to their RCEP membership, Japan and Korea would accrue gains amounting to 1% of their GDP while Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Brunei would all accrue gains of 0.5% of GDP or higher.[13]

New Zealand's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade stated that the RCEP is projected to add $186 billion to the world economy and increase New Zealand's GDP by around $2.0 billion. The RCEP members took 56% of New Zealand's total exports, representing 61% of New Zealand's goods exports (worth $36.6 billion) and 45% of New Zealand's services exports (worth $11.8 billion). According to the ministry, "RCEP delivers improved market access for New Zealand services exporters and investors in some RCEP markets that go beyond existing FTAs. Under RCEP, New Zealand services exporters and investors will, for the first time, benefit from market access commitments from China and ASEAN countries that are not party to the CPTPP".[54] Following the signing of the RCEP, New Zealand and China signed a deal to further expand their existing free-trade agreement. The expanded deal provides for tariffs to be either removed or cut on many of New Zealand's mostly commodities-based exports, ranging from dairy to timber and seafood, while compliance costs will also be reduced. The deal also opens up sectors such as aviation, education and finance.[55]

History

2018 RCEP-15 trade balances, in billions of U.S. dollars

2011

  • August 2011, East Asia Summit Economic Ministers welcomed a Chinese and Japanese joint 'Initiative on Speeding up the Establishment of EAFTA and CEPEA'.[56]
  • During the 19th ASEAN Summit held 14–19 November 2011 in Bali, Indonesia, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was introduced.[57]

2012

  • The 44th ASEAN Economic Ministers (AEM) Meeting and Related Meetings were held in Siem Reap, Cambodia, 25 August – 1 September 2012.[58]
  • Leaders at the 21st ASEAN Summit held 18–20 November 2012 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia endorsed the framework of RCEP and announced the launch of their negotiations.[59]

2013

  • The first round of RCEP negotiation was held on 9–13 May 2013 in Brunei.[35]
  • The second round of RCEP negotiation was held on 23–27 September 2013 in Brisbane, Australia.[60]

2014

  • The third round of RCEP negotiation was held on 20–24 January 2014 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[61]
  • The fourth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 31 March – 4 April 2014 in Nanning, China.[62]
  • The fifth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 21–27 June 2014 in Singapore.[63]
  • The sixth round of RCEP negotiation and related meetings was held on 1–5 December 2014 in New Delhi, India.[64]

2015

  • The seventh round of RCEP negotiation was held on 9–13 February 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. An expert group on electronic commerce met during this round. The Asian Trade Centre (based in Singapore) submitted a proposal regarding an e-Commerce chapter and gave a presentation on the paper.[65]
  • The eighth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 5–13 June 2015 in Kyoto, Japan.[66]
  • The ninth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 3–7 August 2015 in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.[67]
  • The tenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 12–16 October 2015 in Busan, South Korea. The meetings took place at BEXCO (Busan's Convention and Exhibition Centre). This round included the first region wide stakeholder meeting (organized by the Singapore-based Asian Trade Centre) which involved an informal meeting between government officials and business representatives over lunch followed by an afternoon seminar focused on what RCEP can do to help business operate in the e-Commerce space.[68]

2016

  • The eleventh round of RCEP negotiation was held on 14–19 February 2016 in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.[69]
  • The twelfth round of negotiation of RCEP was held on 17–29 April 2016 in Perth, Australia.[70]
  • The thirteenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 12–18 June 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand.[71]
  • The fourteenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 15–18 August 2016 in Vietnam.[72]
  • The fifteenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 11–22 October 2016 in Tianjin, China.[73]
  • The sixteenth round of negotiations of RCEP was held on 6–10 December 2016 in Tangerang, Indonesia.[74]

2017

  • The seventeenth round of negotiations of RCEP was held on 27 February – 3 March 2017 in Kobe, Japan.[75]
  • The eighteenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 8–12 May 2017 in Manila, Philippines.[76]
  • The nineteenth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 24–28 July 2017 in Hyderabad, India.[77]
  • The twentieth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 17–28 October 2017 in Incheon, Korea.[78]
  • The first RCEP summit was held on 14 November 2017 in Manila, Philippines.[79][80]

2018

  • The twenty-first round of RCEP negotiation was held on 2–9 February 2018 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.[81]
  • The twenty-second round of RCEP negotiation was held on 28 April – 8 May 2018 in Singapore.[82]
  • The twenty-third round of RCEP negotiation was held on 17–27 July 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand.[83]
  • August–October 2018, a series of ministerial meeting in Singapore and Auckland.[84]
  • The twenty-fourth round of RCEP negotiation was held on 18–27 October 2018 in Auckland, New Zealand.[85]
  • 14 November 2018, a leaders' summit in Singapore was scheduled.[86][87]

2019

  • The twenty-fifth round of RCEP negotiations was held from 19 to 28 February in Bali, Indonesia.[88]
  • 2 March 2019, a ministerial meeting of RCEP trade ministers held in Cambodia. The ministers agreed to intensify engagement for the remainder of the year (including by convening more inter-sessional meetings).[89]
  • Senior officials held inter-sessional meetings starting 24 May 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand to iron out issues pertaining to the goods and services sector.[90]
  • The twenty-sixth round of RCEP negotiations was held on 3 July 2019 in Melbourne, Australia.[91]
  • The twenty-seventh round of RCEP negotiations was held in Zhengzhou, China from 22 to 31 July 2019.[92]
  • 2–3 August 2019, a ministerial meeting of RCEP trade ministers was held in Beijing, China.[93]
  • 3rd RCEP summit was held once again on 31 October – 3 November 2019 in Thailand with 35th ASEAN summit on same day.
  • The twenty-eighth round of RCEP negotiations was held in Danang, Vietnam from 19 to 27 September 2019.[94]
  • India opts out of RCEP on 4 November 2019 in ASEAN+3 summit, citing, according to its view, the adverse impact the deal would have on its citizens.[95] In light of India's departure, Japan and China called on India to rejoin the partnership.[96][97]

2020

  • The twenty-ninth round of RCEP negotiations was held from 20 to 24 April 2020 as a video conference, due to the current situation regarding COVID-19.[98]
  • On 30 April 2020, Joint Statement of the 29th RCEP Trade Committee (RCEP TNC) Meeting was issued.[99]
  • The thirtieth round of RCEP negotiations was held from 15 to 20 May 2020 as a video conference, due to the current situation regarding COVID-19 disease.[100]
  • The tenth RCEP Inter-sessional Ministerial Meeting held in the form of a video conference on 23 June 2020.[101] The officials reiterated their determination to sign the RCEP at the fourth RCEP Summit in November.
  • The thirty-first round of RCEP negotiation was held on 9 July 2020 as a video conference, due to the current situation regarding COVID-19 disease.[102]
  • The Eighth Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministerial Meeting was held on 27 August 2020 as a video conference, due to the current situation regarding COVID-19 disease.[103] The Ministers issued a Joint Media Statement welcoming the progress made towards finalising the Agreement for signature.[104]
  • The Eleventh RCEP Inter-sessional Ministerial Meeting held in the form of a video conference on 14 October 2020.[105]
  • Preparatory RCEP Ministerial Meeting held in the form of a video conference on 11 November 2020.[106]
  • The RCEP was signed on 15 November 2020,[32][33] in an unusual ceremony that saw the 15 member countries participate by video link due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[49]

2021

  • On April 9, 2021, Singapore ratified RCEP agreement and deposited its instrument of ratification with the Secretary-General of ASEAN. Singapore is the first RCEP Participating Country (RPC) to complete the official ratification process.[107]
  • On April 15, 2021, China deposited the instrument of ratification with the ASEAN secretary-general, marking the completion of the ratification process for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Agreement.[108]
  • On June 25, 2021, Japan deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with the depositary, the Secretary-General of ASEAN.[41]
  • On 11 October 2021, Brunei Darussalam ratified the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement upon depositing its instrument of ratification with the Secretary-General of ASEAN.[38]
  • On 28 October 2021, the Permanent Mission of Thailand to ASEAN deposited the Instrument of Ratification of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Agreement with the Secretary-General of ASEAN.[47]
  • On 2 November 2021, Australia and New Zealand deposited the instruments of ratification with the Secretary-General of ASEAN.[5]


Reactions

Positive

When the RCEP was signed, Chinese premier Li Keqiang declared it "a victory of multilateralism and free trade".[7] Singaporean prime minister Lee Hsien Loong called it "a major step forward for our region" and a sign of support for free trade and economic interdependence.[50]

Several analysts predicted that it would help stimulate the economies of signatory nations amid the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as "pull the economic centre of gravity back towards Asia, with China poised to take the lead in writing trade rules for the region", leaving the U.S. behind in economic and political affairs.[7][8][9]

Mohamed Azmin Ali, Minister of International Trade and Industry of Malaysia, said the RCEP would encourage local businesses to enter global markets and would increase Malaysia's exports. He stated that RCEP signatories would enjoy preferential treatment due to the removal of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers.[15]

Joko Widodo, President of Indonesia, stated that the signing of the RCEP was a historic day that signaled Indonesia's strong commitment to multilateralism. Agus Suparmanto, Indonesian Minister of Trade, said that the RCEP could boost Indonesia's exports to signatory nations by 8-11% and boost investment into Indonesia by 18-22%, and expressed confidence that the trade pact would benefit Indonesian business.[14]

Moon Jae-in, the President of South Korea, praised the RCEP as an unprecedented mega regional trading agreement and expressed confidence that it will "contribute to the recovery of multilateralism and the development of free trade around the world, beyond the region". Moon also stated that he expects the RCEP to open the world's biggest e-commerce market.[16] The Korean Chamber of Commerce and Industry welcomed the conclusion of the RCEP, expecting that it would "expand a new free trade bloc and serve as the basis for revitalizing the Asia-Pacific regional economic markets". The RCEP will benefit Korean companies by removing tariffs on several Korean imports in signatory nations, especially in steel, automobiles and electronics.[17]

Kishore Mahbubani, Singapore's former permanent representative to the United Nations and former President of the United Nations Security Council, stated that the "future of Asia will be written in four letters, RCEP" and that India did a major geopolitical favor to China by withdrawing from the RCEP, just as the United States did by withdrawing from the CPTPP. Mahbubani added that with India and the United States absent, "a massive economic ecosystem centered on China is evolving in the region".[109]

According to Peter Petri and Michael Plummer at the Brookings Institution, the agreement represented "a triumph of ASEAN's middle-power diplomacy" and would lead to significant increases in world incomes and trade by 2030, even though it "says nothing at all about labor, the environment, or state-owned enterprises". They added, "However, ASEAN-centered trade agreements tend to improve over time."[10]

Other reactions and issues

In 2016, the Electronic Frontier Foundation described the first draft of RCEP's intellectual property provisions as containing "quite simply the worst provisions on copyright ever seen in a trade agreement."[18]

India pulled out of the deal in November 2019, primarily due to concerns of dumping of manufactured goods from China and agricultural and dairy products from Australia and New Zealand, potentially affecting its own domestic industrial and farming sectors.[19] Due to India's withdrawal, there are concerns that China may dominate RCEP.[50] ASEAN leaders stated that India was welcome to return and join the bloc. Any other state may join RCEP 18 months after it comes into force.[110]

The Wall Street Journal reported in November 2019 that the tariff-related liberalizations from RCEP would be modest, calling it a "paper tiger". A comprehensive study into the deal shows that it would add just 0.08% to China's 2030 GDP without India's participation.[25][26]

Human rights groups said RCEP could negatively affect small farmers, lead to more land conflicts, and make workers in poorer nations worse off. Rashmi Banga, a senior economist at UNCTAD, said that implementing RCEP at a time of crisis will make poorer nations in Southeast Asia even more vulnerable, adding, "Most Asean nations will see rising imports and declining exports. That will worsen their balance of trade and weaken their fiscal position."[29]

Former Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull said that despite the "hoopla", the RCEP was "a really low-ambition trade deal that we shouldn't kid ourselves on", adding, "It's a very old fashioned trade deal. It's low ambition. It's been affected largely for strategic reasons."[20][111]

CNBC reported that the economic benefits from RCEP would be modest and could take years to materialize, with analysts from Citi suggesting that RCEP was "a coup for China" non-economically. The Citi report also said that India is one of the biggest losers from RCEP, adding, "exclusion will likely make India less attractive as an alternative production base versus ASEAN."[24]

Indian external affairs minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar said it is not in India's interest to join the RCEP, as the trade deal would have "fairly immediate negative consequences" for India's economy.[112][113] Zia Haq, associate editor at Hindustan Times, said India has "rightly shunned" the RCEP because at the moment it cannot take advantage of free-trade agreements. He went on to say, "India fears the RCEP will also limit its policy-making room in areas such as foreign investment." He said that according to some analysts, there will be limited gains from the RCEP without India, which is Asia's third-largest economy.[27]

Yen Huai-shing, deputy director at the Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, wrote on Taipei Times that the RCEP is "not to have a strong impact" on Taiwan. She said that most observers did not expect the RCEP to provide a high degree of openness, and that it provides no dispute settlement mechanism when handling certain trade issues such as meat inspection regulations, adding, "In other words, they are more symbolic than binding."[21]

According to Patricia Ranald at the Australian Institute of International Affairs, RCEP has limited gains from trade and ignores labor, human rights, and environmental sustainability issues. She said, "Despite claims about the benefits of common standards, the RCEP has no commitments to internationally recognised labour rights and environmental standards which Australia and other RCEP governments have endorsed through the United Nations and the International Labour Organization."[28]

Salvatore Babones commented on Foreign Policy that, by 2030, the world's economy would be expected to grow around 40% and the RCEP may add 0.2% to it, the scale of a "rounding error". He said that some main exports to China, such as Japan's machinery and Australia's iron ore, are already tariff-free. Babones said that with the signing of RCEP, "China may score propaganda points by posing as the guardian of the international system, but the system itself is increasingly bypassing China."[22]

Some analysts and economists said the RCEP is unlikely to benefit its developing member countries in the short term. Kate Lappin, Asia Pacific regional secretary at Public Services International, said that the pact has no provisions for improving labor rights, adding, "The agreement might not be good for governments and workers, but still deliver profits for foreign investors."[23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Australia, Brunei, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore and South Korea
  2. ^ China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam
  3. ^ Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar
  4. ^ See references[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]
  5. ^ See references[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

References

  1. ^ a b http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/rcep/rceppdf/d20z_en.pdf
  2. ^ "World Bank: RCEP Initiator is Indonesia, Not China". CNBC. 30 November 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  3. ^ "India stays away from RCEP talks in Bali". Nikkei Asian Review. Jakarta. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "What is RCEP and what does an Indo-Pacific free-trade deal offer China?". South China Morning Post. 12 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  5. ^ a b "The date of the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 3 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  6. ^ "Asia-Pacific's 15-member RCEP trade deal to take effect in January, Australia says". The Japan Times. 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "China declares victory as 15 nations sign world's biggest free-trade deal". South China Morning Post. 15 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  8. ^ a b "US being left behind after Asia forms world's biggest trade bloc RCEP: US Chamber". CNA. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Why the U.S. Could Be the Big Loser in the Huge RCEP Trade Deal Between China and 14 Other Countries". Time. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Petri, Peter A.; Plummer, Michael (16 November 2020). "RCEP: A new trade agreement that will shape global economics and politics". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Petri, Peter A.; Plummer, Michael G. (June 2020). East Asia decouples from the United States: Trade war, COVID-19, and East Asia's new trade blocs (Working paper). Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Overview and Economic Impact" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. December 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2021. CC-BY icon.svg Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO (CC BY 3.0 IGO) license.
  13. ^ a b "Trade tonic". Bangkok Post. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Indonesia Eyes Multiple Benefits from RCEP". Jakarta Globe. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  15. ^ a b "RCEP to enable local industries to enter global market". The Malaysian Reserve. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Moon signs RCEP trade pact after summit with leaders of 14 nations". The Korea Herald. 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Korean firms likely to benefit from RCEP trade deal". The Korea Herald. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  18. ^ a b "RCEP: The Other Closed-Door Agreement to Compromise Users' Rights". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  19. ^ a b "India decides to opt out of RCEP, says key concerns not addressed". The Economic Times. 5 November 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  20. ^ a b "What is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)?". BBC News. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  21. ^ a b Huai-shing, Yen (23 November 2020). "RCEP not to have a strong impact". Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  22. ^ a b Babones, Salvatore (2 December 2020). "Cutting Through the Hype on Asia's New Trade Deal". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  23. ^ a b Chowdhury, Divya (11 February 2021). "RCEP unlikely to benefit developing members in short term: analysts". Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  24. ^ a b c Lee, Yen Nee (16 November 2020). "'A coup for China': Analysts react to the world's largest trade deal that excludes the U.S." CNBC. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  25. ^ a b c Bird, Mike (5 November 2019). "Asia's Huge Trade Pact Is a Paper Tiger in the Making". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  26. ^ a b c Mahadevan, Renuka; Nugroho, Anda (10 September 2019). "Can the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership minimise the harm from the United States–China trade war?". The World Economy. Wiley. 42 (11): 3148–3167. doi:10.1111/twec.12851. ISSN 0378-5920. S2CID 202308592.
  27. ^ a b c Haq, Zia (20 November 2020). "India has rightly shunned RCEP for now". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  28. ^ a b c Ranald, Patricia (27 November 2020). "RCEP Has Limited Trade Gains and Ignores Labour and Human Rights". Australian Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  29. ^ a b c Chandran, Rina (13 November 2020). "Fears world's biggest trade deal could spark conflicts, hurt farmers". Reuters. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  30. ^ "A trade pact nearly 10 years in the making: 5 things to know about RCEP". 15 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  31. ^ "RCEP: Challenges and Opportunities for India, 25 July 2013, RSIS, Singapore" (PDF). rsis.edu.sg. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  32. ^ a b "Asia-Pacific nations sign world's largest trade pact RCEP". CNA. 15 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  33. ^ a b Ng, Charmaine (15 November 2020). "15 countries, including Singapore, sign RCEP, the world's largest trade pact". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  34. ^ "RCEP: Asia-Pacific nations sign world's biggest trade pact". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Joint Statement The First Meeting of Trade Negotiating Committee". 10 May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015.
  36. ^ "Australia to become an original party to world's largest free trade agreement". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2 November 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  37. ^ Ain Bandial (12 October 2021). "Brunei becomes sixth country to ratify RCEP". The Scoop. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  38. ^ a b "BRUNEI DARUSSALAM RATIFIES THE REGIONAL COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP (RCEP) AGREEMENT". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Brunei Darussalam. 11 October 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  39. ^ 井上良太 (26 October 2021). "カンボジア、RCEP協定の批准および寄託手続きが完了". ジェトロ. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  40. ^ 中華人民共和國商務部新聞辦公室 (16 April 2021). "中国向东盟秘书长正式交存《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(RCEP)核准书". 中華人民共和國商務部公式サイト (in Chinese). 中華人民共和國商務部. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  41. ^ a b "Deposit of the Instrument of Acceptance of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  42. ^ "ラオス、RCEP批准書を寄託". JETRO. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  43. ^ "New Zealand ratifies RCEP, agreement to enter into force early next year". New Zealand Government. 3 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  44. ^ "SINGAPORE RATIFIES THE REGIONAL COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT" (PDF). www.mti.gov.sg. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  45. ^ "Singapore first among RCEP participating countries to ratify world's largest trade pact - The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  46. ^ a b "Thailand deposited Instrument of Ratification of the RCEP with ASEAN Secretariat". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand. 4 November 2021. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  47. ^ a b "Thailand deposited Instrument of Ratification of the RCEP Agreement". Permanent Mission of Thailand to ASEAN. 29 October 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  48. ^ "Thailand ratifies RCEP pact". Bangkok Post. 1 November 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  49. ^ a b c Bradsher, Keith; Swanson, Ana (15 November 2020). "China-Led Trade Pact Is Signed, in Challenge to U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  50. ^ a b c d "Asia-Pacific countries sign one of the largest free trade deals in history". www.ft.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  51. ^ a b Kurtenbach, Elaine (15 November 2020). "China, 14 other countries sign world's biggest trade pact". The Globe and Mail. The Associated Press.
  52. ^ "Understanding and applying long-term GDP projections". eaber.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  53. ^ Reichert, Corinne. "Trump dumping Trans-Pacific Partnership". ZDNet.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  54. ^ "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand). Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  55. ^ "China, New Zealand agree to expand free trade agreement". Straits Times. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  56. ^ "Background to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Initiative". Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  57. ^ "Nineteenth ASEAN Summit, Bali, Indonesia | 14–19 November 2011". Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
  58. ^ "ASEAN plus 6 agree to start RCEP talks – CCTV News". english.cntv.cn. Archived from the original on 26 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  59. ^ "Announcement of the Launch of Negotiations for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Japan 20 November 2012". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
  60. ^ "Australia hosts second round of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Negotiations in Brisbane". Archived from the original on 3 October 2013.
  61. ^ "Media Release: 3rd Meeting of the RCEP Trade Negotiation Committee 20–24 January 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia". The Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Malaysia. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
  62. ^ "Fourth Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Joint press release of Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  63. ^ "5th negotiation of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP)". Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  64. ^ "Department of commerce". commerce.nic.in. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  65. ^ "Seventh Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) to be held in Thailand". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  66. ^ "Eighth Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) to be held in Kyoto". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 4 June 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  67. ^ "Ninth Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) to be held in Myanmar". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  68. ^ "Tenth Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) to be held in Korea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  69. ^ "China FTA Network". fta.mofcom.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  70. ^ "The 12th Round of Negotiation of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Held in Perth". Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  71. ^ "Thirteenth Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) to be held in Auckland". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 8 June 2016. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  72. ^ "14th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership(RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 10 August 2016. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  73. ^ "The 14th Round of Negotiation of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam". english.mofcom.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  74. ^ "16th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  75. ^ "17th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership(RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 22 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  76. ^ [1]
  77. ^ S, Arun (27 July 2017). "India pressed to open up procurement". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  78. ^ "20th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  79. ^ "Najib: RCEP likely to be signed in Nov 2018". 15 November 2017. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  80. ^ "Now push RCEP, Abe-san". The Straits Times. 24 November 2017. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  81. ^ "21st Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 29 January 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  82. ^ "22nd Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 25 April 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  83. ^ "23th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 12 July 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  84. ^ Livemint (5 September 2018). "India wins key concession on services at RCEP Singapore Ministerial". Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  85. ^ "23th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 16 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  86. ^ "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Summit". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 14 November 2018. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  87. ^ South China Morning Post (3 September 2018). "US trade war and Japan push raise prospects for China-backed Asia free-trade deal". Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  88. ^ "25th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 14 February 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  89. ^ "Seventh Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministerial Meeting". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 1 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  90. ^ "Senior officials of RCEP countries to meet in Bangkok on May 24". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2019 – via Business Standard.
  91. ^ "26th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 18 June 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  92. ^ "27th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 19 July 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  93. ^ "Eighth Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Intersessional Ministerial Meeting". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 1 August 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  94. ^ "28th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 17 September 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  95. ^ "India decides to opt out of RCEP, says key concerns not addressed". The Economic Times. 4 November 2019. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  96. ^ Bloomberg, Enda Curran. "Analysis | What's the RCEP and What Happened to the TPP?". Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2019 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  97. ^ "India's exit from RCEP leaves Japan and China unsure about future direction of free trade pact". The Japan Times Online. 5 November 2019. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  98. ^ "29th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  99. ^ "Joint Statement of the 29th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Trade Negotiating Committee (RCEP TNC) Meeting". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 30 April 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  100. ^ "30th Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  101. ^ "RCEP members determined to sign deal in November". National ASEAN 2020 Committee. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  102. ^ "31st Round of Negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 7 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  103. ^ "Eighth Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministerial Meeting". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  104. ^ "8th Virtual Ministerial Meeting, 27 August 2020". Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  105. ^ "Eleventh Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Intersessional Ministerial Meeting". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 13 October 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  106. ^ "Preparatory Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Ministerial Meeting to be Held". Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. 10 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  107. ^ "SINGAPORE RATIFIES THE REGIONAL COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT" (PDF). MINISTRY OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY of Singapore. 9 April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  108. ^ "What is the Ratification Status of the RCEP Agreement and when Will it Come into Effect?". 30 April 2021.
  109. ^ "Why Attempts to Build a New Anti-China Alliance Will Fail". Foreign Policy. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  110. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "What happens now the RCEP trade deal has been signed?". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  111. ^ Bermingham, Finbarr (13 November 2020). "China-Australia relations: ex-PM Malcolm Turnbull urges Canberra not to 'buckle under pressure' from Beijing". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  112. ^ "RCEP would have hurt India's economy, FTA with EU not easy: S Jaishankar". Hindustan Times. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  113. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (19 November 2020). "India pulled out of RCEP as concerns not addressed: S Jaishankar". The Economic Times. Retrieved 16 February 2021.

External links