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The Organization of Turkic States, formerly called the Turkic Council or the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States, is an international organization comprising prominent independent Turkic countries consisting of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Uzbekistan. It is an intergovernmental organization whose overarching aim is promoting comprehensive cooperation among Turkic-speaking states. First proposed by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2006, it was founded on October 3, 2009, in Nakhchivan.

The General Secretariat is in Istanbul. Turkmenistan is currently not a full member of the council due to its neutral status. However, by default of its Turkic heritage, it is a possible future member of the council.[2] Turkmenistan received the observer status at the 8th summit in Istanbul.[3]

Also in 8th summit in Istanbul, the council reformed into organization.[4] During the 8th summit, the name Turkic Council was changed to Organization of Turkic States.[5][6][7]

History

The organization was established on October 3, 2009, by the Nakhchivan Agreement signed among Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. According to Halil Akıncı, the founding Secretary-General of the organization the "Organization of Turkic States has become the first voluntary alliance of Turkic states in history".

In 2012, the flag of the Organization of Turkic States was adopted.

On April 30, 2018, it was announced that Uzbekistan would join the Organization of Turkic States[8] and attend the upcoming summit of the organisation in Bishkek.[9] It formally applied for membership on September 12, 2019.[10]

Since late 2018, Hungary has been an observer and may request full membership.[11]

Mission and objectives

The Preamble of the Nakhchivan Agreement reaffirms the will of Member States to adhere to the purposes and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, and defines the main objective of the Organization of Turkic States as further deepening comprehensive cooperation among Turkic Speaking States, as well as making joint contributions to peace and stability in the region and in the world. Member States have confirmed their commitment to democratic values, human rights, the rule of law, and principles of good governance.

The Nakhchivan Agreement sets out the main purposes and tasks of the Organization as follows:

  • Strengthening mutual confidence and friendship among the Parties;
  • Developing common positions on foreign policy issues;
  • Coordinating actions to combat international terrorism, separatism, extremism and cross-border crimes;
  • Promoting effective regional and bilateral cooperation in all areas of common interest;
  • Creating favorable conditions for trade and investment;
  • Aiming for comprehensive and balanced economic growth, social and cultural development;
  • Expanding interaction in the fields of science, technology, education, health, culture, sports and tourism;
  • Encouraging interaction of mass media and other means of communication;
  • Promoting exchange of relevant legal information and enhancing legal cooperation.

Structure and operation

Main organs of the Organization of Turkic States include:

  • Council of Heads of State
  • Council of Foreign Ministers
  • Senior Officials Committee
  • Council of Elders (Aksakals)
  • The Secretariat

The main decision-making and governing body of the Organization of Turkic States is the Council of Heads of State, which is presided over by the President whose country holds the chairmanship. The chairmanship rotates on an annual basis. All activities of the Organization of Turkic States are coordinated and monitored by its Secretariat, which is located in Istanbul in accordance with the Nakchivan Agreement. Presidents meet once a year in a previously determined Turkic city. Senior officials, Aksakals, as well as other Ministers and government officials, all meet on a regular basis.

Projects

Since its founding agreement defines comprehensive cooperation among Turkic states as the organization's main objective and raison d'être, the Organization of Turkic States is working on a whole variety of projects. The projects are grouped under six cooperation processes, which are: economy, culture, education, transport, customs, and diaspora. Examples of the projects include establishing the Turkic University Union[12] and writing a common history textbook. The Organization of Turkic States also works on ways to boost economic development in underdeveloped regions of Member States. The Secretariat brings together Economy Ministers, Education Ministers, Transport Ministers, Heads of Customs Administrations, and other senior officials from different ministries and agencies in order to work on ways to promote cooperation in relevant spheres. Prior to being brought before ministers and heads of administrations, projects and issues of cooperation are elaborated by working groups. One recently launched project is the establishment of a mechanism for closer cooperation among Turkic diasporas all over the world.

Joint investment fund

In November 2020, Kyrgyz Minister of Foreign Affairs Ruslan Kazakbaev pointed that Organization of Turkic States members have to strengthen their economic relations, they have to establish a joint investment fund and build its center on Kyrgyzstan on his meeting with Turkish Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu.[13] Baghdad Amreyev visited Minister of Treasury and Finance of Turkey Lütfi Elvan and sides talked about establishment of Joint Investment Fund.[14] In September 2021, on meeting of Turkic ministers responsible for the economy, sides negotiated about a Turkic Joint Investment Fund feasibility work and agreement to establish the fund.[15]

Affiliated bodies and organizations

The Turkic-speaking areas

The Organization of Turkic States functions as an umbrella organization for all other cooperation mechanisms like:

Flag

The current flag of the Organization of Turkic States was adopted at its 2nd Summit, which took place in Bishkek on 23 August 2012 and officially raised on 12 October 2012.[16] The flag combines the symbols of the four founding member states: the light blue color of the flag of Kazakhstan which also evokes the traditional Turkic color of turquoise, the sun of the flag of Kyrgyzstan, the star of the flag of Azerbaijan and the crescent of the Turkish flag.

Summits

7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States in Baku

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the newly independent Turkic States of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as well as Turkey organized Summits of the Heads of Turkic Speaking States, the first of which took place in 1992 in Ankara. With the establishment of Turkic Council, at the 10th Summit it was decided to rename the top-level meetings to Turkic Council Summits.

Turkic Council Summit is the highlight of the year whereby Heads of State evaluate outcomes of the past period and set goals for the next year. The First Summit took place in Almaty, Kazakhstan, on 20–21 October 2011 and focused primarily on economic cooperation. The Second Summit was held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, on 22–23 August 2012 and concentrated on educational, scientific, and cultural cooperation. The Third Summit took place on 15–16 August 2013 in Qabala, Azerbaijan with a theme of transport and connectivity.[17]

On October 15, 2019, the Seventh Turkic Council Summit was organized in Baku with the participation of Presidents of member states Ilham Aliyev, Sooronbai Jeenbekov, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, as well as Purli Agamyradov as a guest, Viktor Orban as an observer and heads of Turkic cooperation institutions. The participants celebrated the 10th anniversary of the Nakhchivan Agreement on the establishment of the Turkic Council in addition to Uzbekistan’s joining the organization as a full-fledged member. The title of Honorary Chairman of the Turkic Council was given to the former President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev. In the conclusion of the Summit, the Heads of States signed Baku Declaration. Besides, the presidency in the Council officially passed to Azerbaijan.[18][19]

Extraordinary Summit

Extraordinary Summit of Turkic Council focused on the fight against the coronavirus pandemic was conducted through videoconferencing by the initiative of the chairman of the organization Ilham Aliyev on April 10, 2020. The conference titled “Cooperation and solidarity in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic” was held with the participation of the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus along with the head of states of the member countries. Participants discussed the measures taken at the national level to fight against the coronavirus epidemic, improve multilateral cooperation in the field of healthcare, and undertake the common challenges caused by the outbreak of COVID-19. Exchanging views on the ways of overcoming negative effects of coronavirus on the national and global economies, they touched upon trade relations and continuous transportation and entrusted the Ministries of Commerce and Transport of the member States to review the process via videoconferencing and present practical solutions for the free flow of goods among Turkic Council states across the Trans-Caspian Corridor.[20][21] An 18-point list of mutual priorities of all member nations was outlined in the Baku Declaration.[22]

International cooperation

Organization of Turkic States is an observer at the Economic Cooperation Organization. The Organization has also applied for an observer status at the United Nations and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Besides, Organization of Turkic States maintains close cooperative relations with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia.

Members

Current

Country Accession Population (2021) Area (km2) GDP (nominal) 2021[23] GDP per capita (nominal) 2021[24]
 Azerbaijan Founder 10,139,136[25] 86,600 $49.914 billion $4,922
 Kazakhstan 19,038,528[26] 2,724,900 $187.836 billion $9,866
 Kyrgyzstan 6,663,600[27] 199,900 $7.470 billion $1,121
 Turkey 85,573,261[28] 783,562 $794.530 billion $9,327
 Uzbekistan 2021 35,202,467[29] 447,400 $61.203 billion $1,738
 Organization Of Turkic States  156,616,392 4,242,362 $1.100.953 trillion $7,029

Observer states

Country Accession Population (2018)[30][31] Area (km2) GDP (nominal) GDP per capita
(nominal) (2021)[32]
 Hungary[33] 2018 9,707,499 93,030 $176,543 billion $18,142
 Turkmenistan[34] 2021 5,850,901 491,210 $54,218 billion $8,862

Possible future observers

In 2020, Ukrainian Deputy Foreign Minister Emine Ceppar stated Ukraine wanted to be an observer.[35]

Former applicants

On May 3, 2021, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan officially applied for observer status at the Turkic Council.[36][37]

Events

# Date Location Notes
Turkic Speaking States Summits
I October 30, 1992 Turkey Ankara First Turkic Speaking States Summit
July 12, 1993 Kazakhstan Almaty the Almaty Agreement for founding TURKSOY
II October 18, 1994 Turkey Istanbul Second Turkic Speaking States Summit
III August 28, 1995 Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Third Turkic Speaking States Summit
IV October 21, 1996 Uzbekistan Tashkent Fourth Turkic Speaking States Summit
V June 9, 1998 Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan Fifth Turkic Speaking States Summit
VI April 8, 2000 Azerbaijan Baku Sixth Turkic Speaking States Summit
VII April 26, 2001 Turkey Istanbul Seventh Turkic Speaking States Summit
VIII November 17, 2006 Turkey Antalya Eighth Turkic Speaking States Summit
November 21, 2008 Turkey Istanbul the Istanbul Agreement for founding TURKPA
IX October 3, 2009 Azerbaijan Nakhchivan Ninth Turkic Speaking States Summit, the Nakhchivan Agreement for founding the Turkic Council
X September 15, 2010 Turkey Istanbul Tenth Turkic Speaking States Summit (The end of Non-Corporate Summits of Turkic-Speaking Countries State)
Turkic Council Summits
I October 21, 2011 Kazakhstan Almaty First Turkic Council Summit, Cooperation in Economic Area and Trade Area
II August 23, 2012 Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Second Turkic Council Summit, Cooperation in Education, Science and Culture[38]
III August 16, 2013 Azerbaijan Qabala Third Turkic Council Summit, Cooperation in Transportation[39]
IV June 5, 2014 Turkey Bodrum Fourth Turkic Council Summit, Cooperation in Tourism[40]
December 24, 2014 Ukraine Kyiv Opening of the first Turkic Council Regional Diaspora Center[41]
V September 11, 2015 Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan Fifth Turkic Council Summit, Cooperation in Media and Information
VI September 2, 2018 Kyrgyzstan Cholpon Ata Sixth Turkic Council Summit
VII October 15, 2019 Azerbaijan Baku Seventh Turkic Council Summit
April 10, 2020 Teleconference Extraordinary Video Summit[42]
March 31, 2021 Teleconference Informal Video Summit[43]
VIII November 12, 2021 Turkey Istanbul Eighth Turkic Council Summit, organization status granted.[43][44]
Organization of Turkic States Summits
I (2022) Uzbekistan (TBD) First Organization of Turkic States Summit[45]

List of Secretaries-General of the Organization of Turkic States

No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office Note
1 Halil Akıncı Turkey 15 September 2010 16 September 2014 End of extended term
2 Ramil Hasanov Azerbaijan 16 September 2014 3 September 2018 End of extended term
3 Baghdad Amreyev Kazakhstan 3 September 2018

List of Chairmen of the Organization of Turkic States

No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office
Sooronbay Jeenbekov Kyrgyzstan 3 September 2018[46] 15 October 2019
Ilham Aliyev Azerbaijan 15 October 2019[47] 12 November 2021
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Turkey 12 November 2021[48] incumbent

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Turk Dili Konusan Ulkeler Isbirligi Konseyi'nin Kurulmasina Dair Nahcivan Anlasmasi" (PDF). Turkkon.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  3. ^ "Türk Konseyi 8. Zirvesi, Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan'ın ev sahipliğinde yapılacak". iha.com.tr. 11 November 2021.
  4. ^ "Turkic Council reforms into Organization of Turkic States". TRTWorld. 12 November 2021.
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  10. ^ "Uzbekistan Officially Applies for Membership in Turkic Council".
  11. ^ "Hungary is now part of the assembly of "Turkic Speaking Countries"". Hungarian Free Press. 2018-11-25. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
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  13. ^ "Kyrgz and Turkish Ministers of Foreign Affairs meeting". Youtube - Turkic Council channel.
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  15. ^ "Turkic Council Ministers in charge of economy got together". TRT Avaz.
  16. ^ turkkon.org
  17. ^ "Third Summit of the Turkic Council Press Release". Turkkon.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
  18. ^ "Seventh Summit of Turkic Council held in Baku". Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic Speaking Countries. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  19. ^ "Baku hosted 7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States VIDEO". azertag.az. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
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  26. ^ "Халық". National Bureau of Statistiscs, Republic of Kazakhstan. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  27. ^ "Основные итоги естественного движения населения январе-августе 2020г".
  28. ^ "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2021". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
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  30. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  31. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  32. ^ "GDP (current US$) - Data". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  33. ^ "Press Release of the Sixth Summit of the Turkic Council". Turkic Council. Retrieved 2021-09-04.
  34. ^ "The Turkic world is on the edge of a historic revival". TRT world. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  35. ^ "Dışişleri Bakan Yardımcısı açıkladı".
  36. ^ Hamdullah Mohib [@hmohib] (May 4, 2021). "Yesterday, Afghanistan proudly applied for observer status in the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States (CCTS)..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  37. ^ "Secretary General of the Turkic Council received Afghan Ambassador". Turkic Council.
  38. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
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  40. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  41. ^ "Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi". Turkkon.org. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  42. ^ "Presidents of the Turkic Council will hold an Extraordinary Video Summit on 10 April 2020 on Corona Virus | News". Türk Keneşi. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  43. ^ a b "Turkistan Declaration of the Informal Summit of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States". Turkic Council. 31 March 2020.
  44. ^ "The 8th Turkic Council Summit will take place on November 12, 2021 in Istanbul". TWESCO (in Turkish). 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  45. ^ "Uzbekistan to hold 1st Summit of Organization of Turkic States in 2022". UzReport.news (in Russian). Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  46. ^ "Press Release of the Sixth Summit of the Turkic Council | News". Türk Keneşi. Retrieved 13 November 2021. The Presidents wished success to the Kyrgyz President for the assumption of the Chairmanship of the Turkic Council.
  47. ^ "Chairman". Türk Keneşi. Retrieved 13 November 2021. During the Baku Summit held in October 2019, the Republic of Azerbaijan took over the Chairmanship from the Kyrgyz Republic until the next Summit to be held in the second half of 2020 in Turkey.
  48. ^ "Eighth Summit of the Organization of Turkic States was held in Istanbul | News". Türk Keneşi. Retrieved 13 November 2021. At the Summit, the Chairmanship of the Organization was handed over from Azerbaijan to Turkey...

External links