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World map
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  •   Very high (≥ 0.800)
  •   High (0.700–0.799)
  •   Medium (0.550–0.699)
  •   Low (≤ 0.549)
  •   Data unavailable
World map
World map of countries or territories by Human Development Index scores in increments of 0.050 (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  •   ≥ 0.900
  •   0.850–0.899
  •   0.800–0.849
  •   0.750–0.799
  •   0.700–0.749
  •   0.650–0.699
  •   0.600–0.649
  •   0.550–0.599
  •   0.500–0.549
  •   0.450–0.499
  •   0.400–0.449
  •   ≤ 0.399
  •   Data unavailable

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) compiles the Human Development Index (HDI) of 189 countries in the annual Human Development Report. The index considers the health, education and income in a given country to provide a measure of human development which is comparable between countries and over time.[1][2]

The HDI was first published in 1990 with the goal of being a more comprehensive measure of human development than purely economic measures such as gross domestic product. The index incorporates three dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge, and decent living standards. Various indicators are used to quantify how countries perform on each dimension. The indicators used in the 2020 report were life expectancy at birth; expected years of schooling for children; mean years of schooling for adults; and gross national income per capita. The indicators are used to create a health index, an education index and an income index, each with a value between 0 and 1. The geometric mean of the three indices—that is, the cube root of the product of the indices—is the human development index. A value above 0.800 is classified as very high, between 0.700 and 0.799 as high, 0.550 to 0.699 as medium, and below 0.550 as low.[1][3][4]

The data used to calculate HDI comes mostly from United Nations agencies and international institutions, such as United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Rarely, when one of the indicators is missing, cross-country regression models are used. Due to improved data and methodology updates, HDI values are not comparable across human development reports; instead, each report recalculates the HDI for some previous years.[4][5]

The HDI is the most widely used indicator of human development and changed how people view the concept.[6][7] However, several aspects of the index have received criticism. Some scholars have criticized how the factors are weighed, in particular how an additional year of life expectancy is valued differently between countries;[7][8] and the limited factors it considers, noting the omission of factors such as the levels of distributional and gender inequality.[9][10] In response to the former, the UNDP introduced the inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) in its 2010 report, and in response to the latter the Gender Development Index (GDI) was introduced in the 1995 report.[11][12] Others have criticized the perceived oversimplification of using a single number per country.[13][14] To reflect developmental differences within countries, a subnational HDI (SHDI) featuring data for more than 1,600 regions was introduced in 2018 by the Global Data Lab at Radboud University in the Netherlands.[14] In 2020, the UNDP introduced another index, the planetary pressures–adjusted HDI (PHDI), which decreases the scores of countries with a higher ecological footprint.[15]

Countries

World map
Average annual HDI growth from 2010 to 2019 (published in 2020)
  •   ≥ 1.4%
  •   1.2%–1.4%
  •   1%–1.2%
  •   0.8%–1%
  •   0.6%–0.8%
  •   0.4%–0.6%
  •   0.2%–0.4%
  •   0%–0.2%
  •   −0.5%–0%
  •   −1%–−0.5%
  •   < −1%
  •   No data

The Human Development Report includes the 193 United Nations member states as well as Palestine and Hong Kong. The index is however not calculated for 6 UN member states, namely Monaco, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, Somalia, and Tuvalu. Some components of the index may be calculated for these countries though. Other non-UN members, such as Vatican City, Kosovo, Macao, and Taiwan, are also not included. In total, the HDI is available for 189 nations.[2]

Global Data Lab also provides data on the HDI of Somalia, putting it at 0.361, the lowest in the world, though data for Syria are unavailable.[16]

Countries ranked from 1 to 66 in the year 2019 are considered to be of very high HDI, ranked 67 to 119 are considered to be of high HDI, ranked 120 to 156 are considered to be of medium HDI, and ranked 157 to 189 are considered to be of low HDI.[17][4]

Table of countries by HDI
Rank Nation HDI
2019 data (2020 report)​[2] Change over 5 years (2014)​[18] 2019 data (2020 report)​[2] Average annual growth (2010–2019)​[18]
1 Steady  Norway 0.957 Increase 0.20%
2 Increase (7)  Ireland 0.955 Increase 0.65%
2 Steady   Switzerland 0.955 Increase 0.16%
4 Increase (7)  Hong Kong 0.949 Increase 0.54%
4 Increase (4)  Iceland 0.949 Increase 0.62%
6 Decrease (3)  Germany 0.947 Increase 0.24%
7 Decrease (3)  Sweden 0.945 Increase 0.41%
8 Decrease (2)  Australia 0.944 Increase 0.17%
8 Decrease (1)  Netherlands 0.944 Increase 0.32%
10 Decrease (6)  Denmark 0.940 Increase 0.28%
11 Decrease (2)  Finland 0.938 Increase 0.26%
11 Steady  Singapore 0.938 Increase 0.35%
13 Steady  United Kingdom 0.932 Increase 0.24%
14 Increase (1)  Belgium 0.931 Increase 0.25%
14 Increase (3)  New Zealand 0.931 Increase 0.30%
16 Decrease (1)  Canada 0.929 Increase 0.34%
17 Decrease (3)  United States 0.926 Increase 0.12%
18 Steady  Austria 0.922 Increase 0.22%
19 Increase (1)  Israel 0.919 Increase 0.29%
19 Increase (2)  Japan 0.919 Increase 0.39%
19 Steady  Liechtenstein 0.919 Increase 0.18%
22 Increase (2)  Slovenia 0.917 Increase 0.35%
23 Steady  Luxembourg 0.916 Increase 0.22%
23 Decrease (1)  South Korea 0.916 Increase 0.33%
25 Increase (1)  Spain 0.904 Increase 0.40%
26 Decrease (1)  France 0.901 Increase 0.28%
27 Decrease (1)  Czech Republic 0.900 Increase 0.38%
28 Increase (2)  Malta 0.895 Increase 0.54%
29 Increase (2)  Estonia 0.892 Increase 0.51%
29 Decrease (1)  Italy 0.892 Increase 0.16%
31 Increase (6)  United Arab Emirates 0.890 Increase 0.91%
32 Decrease (3)  Greece 0.888 Increase 0.29%
33 Steady  Cyprus 0.887 Increase 0.40%
34 Steady  Lithuania 0.882 Increase 0.66%
35 Steady  Poland 0.880 Increase 0.52%
36 Decrease (4)  Andorra 0.868 Increase 0.40%
37 Increase (3)  Latvia 0.866 Increase 0.55%
38 Decrease (1)  Portugal 0.864 Increase 0.46%
39 Decrease (2)  Slovakia 0.860 Increase 0.38%
40 Increase (1)  Hungary 0.854 Increase 0.30%
40 Decrease (4)  Saudi Arabia 0.854 Increase 0.60%
42 Increase (6)  Bahrain 0.852 Increase 0.70%
43 Steady  Chile 0.851 Increase 0.65%
43 Increase (2)  Croatia 0.851 Increase 0.48%
45 Steady  Qatar 0.848 Increase 0.19%
46 Decrease (2)  Argentina 0.845 Increase 0.21%
47 Decrease (6)  Brunei 0.838 Increase 0.15%
48 Increase (2)  Montenegro 0.829 Increase 0.37%
49 Increase (2)  Romania 0.828 Increase 0.31%
50 Decrease (3)  Palau 0.826 Increase 0.55%
51 Increase (7)  Kazakhstan 0.825 Increase 0.86%
52 Increase (1)  Russia 0.824 Increase 0.60%
53 Decrease (4)  Belarus 0.823 Increase 0.39%
54 Increase (5)  Turkey 0.820 Increase 1.16%
55 Increase (1)  Uruguay 0.817 Increase 0.49%
56 Decrease (2)  Bulgaria 0.816 Increase 0.39%
57 Increase (5)  Panama 0.815 Increase 0.58%
58 Decrease (3)  Bahamas 0.814 Increase 0.12%
58 Decrease (6)  Barbados 0.814 Increase 0.23%
60 Decrease (3)  Oman 0.813 Increase 0.43%
61 Increase (7)  Georgia 0.812 Increase 0.87%
62 Decrease (3)  Costa Rica 0.810 Increase 0.64%
62 Increase (1)  Malaysia 0.810 Increase 0.54%
64 Decrease (5)  Kuwait 0.806 Increase 0.25%
64 Increase (3)  Serbia 0.806 Increase 0.57%
66 Decrease (2)  Mauritius 0.804 Increase 0.76%
67 Increase (2)  Seychelles 0.796 Increase 0.46%
67 Decrease (1)  Trinidad and Tobago 0.796 Increase 0.17%
69 Decrease (4)  Albania 0.795 Increase 0.72%
70 Increase (5)  Cuba 0.783 Increase 0.03%
70 Increase (1)  Iran 0.783 Increase 0.60%
72 Steady  Sri Lanka 0.782 Increase 0.41%
73 Increase (8)  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.780 Increase 0.88%
74 Increase (2)  Grenada 0.779 Increase 0.36%
74 Increase (4)  Mexico 0.779 Increase 0.45%
74 Steady  Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.779 Increase 0.48%
74 Decrease (1)  Ukraine 0.779 Increase 0.35%
78 Increase (1)  Antigua and Barbuda 0.778 Increase 0.22%
79 Steady  Peru 0.777 Increase 0.83%
79 Increase (8)  Thailand 0.777 Increase 0.79%
81 Decrease (4)  Armenia 0.776 Increase 0.42%
82 Increase (2)  North Macedonia 0.774 Increase 0.46%
83 Increase (2)  Colombia 0.767 Increase 0.57%
84 Decrease (2)  Brazil 0.765 Increase 0.57%
85 Increase (12)  China 0.761 Increase 0.95%
86 Decrease (4)  Ecuador 0.759 Increase 0.50%
86 Increase (6)  Saint Lucia 0.759 Increase 0.43%
88 Increase (1)  Azerbaijan 0.756 Increase 0.45%
88 Increase (10)  Dominican Republic 0.756 Increase 0.76%
90 Steady  Moldova 0.750 Increase 0.56%
91 Steady  Algeria 0.748 Increase 0.41%
92 Decrease (6)  Lebanon 0.744 Decrease 0.32%
93 Increase (1)  Fiji 0.743 Increase 0.43%
94 Decrease (6)  Dominica 0.742 Increase 0.03%
95 Increase (8)  Maldives 0.740 Increase 0.86%
95 Increase (7)  Tunisia 0.740 Increase 0.37%
97 Decrease (3)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.738 Increase 0.31%
97 Decrease (5)  Suriname 0.738 Increase 0.43%
99 Decrease (3)  Mongolia 0.737 Increase 0.64%
100 Increase (5)  Botswana 0.735 Increase 1.15%
101 Decrease (2)  Jamaica 0.734 Increase 0.03%
102 Decrease (3)  Jordan 0.729 Decrease 0.12%
103 Increase (1)  Paraguay 0.728 Increase 0.50%
104 Increase (2)  Tonga 0.725 Increase 0.41%
105 Decrease (4)  Libya 0.724 Decrease 1.08%
106 Increase (4)  Uzbekistan 0.720 Increase 0.82%
107 Increase (6)  Bolivia 0.718 Increase 0.82%
107 Increase (6)  Indonesia 0.718 Increase 0.86%
107 Increase (3)  Philippines 0.718 Increase 0.76%
110 Decrease (3)  Belize 0.716 Increase 0.33%
111 Decrease (3)  Samoa 0.715 Increase 0.27%
111 Increase (4)  Turkmenistan 0.715 Increase 0.79%
113 Decrease (44)  Venezuela 0.711 Decrease 0.69%
114 Decrease (2)  South Africa 0.709 Increase 0.73%
115 Decrease (6)  Palestine 0.708 Increase 0.38%
116 Increase (1)  Egypt 0.707 Increase 0.63%
117 NA[a]  Marshall Islands 0.704 NA[a]
117 Increase (1)  Vietnam 0.704 Increase 0.70%
119 Steady  Gabon 0.703 Increase 0.84%
120 Decrease (4)  Kyrgyzstan 0.697 Increase 0.57%
121 Increase (2)  Morocco 0.686 Increase 1.20%
122 Decrease (2)  Guyana 0.682 Increase 0.55%
123 Increase (4)  Iraq 0.674 Increase 0.65%
124 Decrease (3)  El Salvador 0.673 Increase 0.08%
125 Decrease (2)  Tajikistan 0.668 Increase 0.51%
126 Decrease (4)  Cape Verde 0.665 Increase 0.57%
127 Decrease (1)  Guatemala 0.663 Increase 1.00%
128 Decrease (3)  Nicaragua 0.660 Increase 0.66%
129 Increase (1)  Bhutan 0.654 Increase 1.46%
130 Decrease (2)  Namibia 0.646 Increase 1.03%
131 Increase (1)  India 0.645 Increase 1.21%
132 Steady  Honduras 0.634 Increase 0.43%
133 Increase (8)  Bangladesh 0.632 Increase 1.41%
134 Decrease (3)  Kiribati 0.630 Increase 0.67%
135 Increase (1)  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.625 Increase 1.21%
136 Decrease (2)  Micronesia 0.620 Increase 0.35%
137 Increase (1)  Laos 0.613 Increase 1.17%
138 Increase (5)  Eswatini 0.611 Increase 2.03%
138 Decrease (1)  Ghana 0.611 Increase 0.87%
140 Decrease (5)  Vanuatu 0.609 Increase 0.35%
141 Decrease (12)  East Timor 0.606 Decrease 0.40%
142 Steady    Nepal 0.602 Increase 1.28%
143 Decrease (3)  Kenya 0.601 Increase 0.97%
144 Steady  Cambodia 0.594 Increase 1.09%
145 Decrease (6)  Equatorial Guinea 0.592 Increase 0.30%
146 Steady  Zambia 0.584 Increase 1.15%
147 Increase (3)  Myanmar 0.583 Increase 1.39%
148 Decrease (4)  Angola 0.581 Increase 1.31%
149 Decrease (2)  Republic of the Congo 0.574 Increase 1.10%
150 Increase (1)  Zimbabwe 0.571 Increase 1.90%
151 Decrease (3)  Solomon Islands 0.567 Increase 0.61%
151 Decrease (2)  Syria 0.567 Decrease 1.87%
153 Increase (1)  Cameroon 0.563 Increase 1.22%
154 Increase (2)  Pakistan 0.557 Increase 0.94%
155 Decrease (2)  Papua New Guinea 0.555 Increase 0.68%
156 Decrease (4)  Comoros 0.554 Increase 0.68%
157 Decrease (2)  Mauritania 0.546 Increase 0.87%
158 Decrease (1)  Benin 0.545 Increase 1.10%
159 Increase (2)  Uganda 0.544 Increase 0.99%
160 Decrease (1)  Rwanda 0.543 Increase 1.10%
161 Decrease (3)  Nigeria 0.539 Increase 1.25%
162 Increase (7)  Ivory Coast 0.538 Increase 1.56%
163 Decrease (1)  Tanzania 0.529 Increase 1.06%
164 Decrease (4)  Madagascar 0.528 Increase 0.36%
165 Increase (2)  Lesotho 0.527 Increase 1.52%
166 Increase (3)  Djibouti 0.524 Increase 1.61%
167 Increase (1)  Togo 0.515 Increase 1.12%
168 Decrease (3)  Senegal 0.512 Increase 1.00%
169 Decrease (5)  Afghanistan 0.511 Increase 0.89%
170 Decrease (1)  Haiti 0.510 Increase 0.89%
170 Decrease (5)  Sudan 0.510 Increase 0.94%
172 Increase (1)  Gambia 0.496 Increase 0.87%
173 Increase (5)  Ethiopia 0.485 Increase 1.58%
174 Steady  Malawi 0.483 Increase 1.27%
175 Steady  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.480 Increase 1.10%
175 Increase (1)  Guinea-Bissau 0.480 Increase 1.07%
175 Decrease (3)  Liberia 0.480 Increase 0.60%
178 Increase (1)  Guinea 0.477 Increase 1.53%
179 Decrease (16)  Yemen 0.470 Decrease 0.82%
180 Decrease (3)  Eritrea 0.459 Increase 0.57%
181 Increase (2)  Mozambique 0.456 Increase 1.44%
182 Increase (3)  Burkina Faso 0.452 Increase 1.83%
182 Decrease (2)  Sierra Leone 0.452 Increase 1.40%
184 Steady  Mali 0.434 Increase 0.69%
185 Decrease (5)  Burundi 0.433 Increase 0.58%
185 Decrease (3)  South Sudan 0.433 Increase 0.61%
187 Decrease (1)  Chad 0.398 Increase 0.84%
188 Decrease (1)  Central African Republic 0.397 Increase 0.94%
189 Decrease (1)  Niger 0.394 Increase 1.95%

Regions and groups

The Human Development Report also reports the HDI for various groups of countries. These include regional groupings based on the UNDP regional classifications,[19] HDI groups including the countries currently falling into a given HDI bracket, OECD members and various other UN groupings.[20] The aggregate HDI values are calculated in the same way as for individual countries with the input data being the weighted average for all countries with available data in the group.[21]

Table of regions and groups by HDI[22]
Region or group 1990 2000 2010 2015 2017 2018 2019
OECD 0.786 0.835 0.874 0.891 0.896 0.898 0.900
Very high human development 0.782 0.826 0.870 0.889 0.894 0.896 0.898
Europe and Central Asia 0.662 0.675 0.739 0.775 0.785 0.787 0.791
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.632 0.690 0.736 0.759 0.762 0.764 0.766
High human development 0.567 0.629 0.705 0.735 0.744 0.748 0.753
East Asia and the Pacific 0.517 0.595 0.688 0.724 0.735 0.740 0.747
World 0.601 0.644 0.699 0.724 0.732 0.734 0.737
Small Island Developing States 0.599 0.646 0.706 0.720 0.724 0.726 0.728
Arab states 0.556 0.614 0.676 0.691 0.699 0.702 0.705
Developing countries 0.517 0.571 0.642 0.673 0.683 0.685 0.689
South Asia 0.437 0.501 0.580 0.620 0.635 0.637 0.641
Medium human development 0.433 0.492 0.571 0.609 0.624 0.627 0.631
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.404 0.426 0.501 0.535 0.542 0.544 0.547
Least developed countries 0.353 0.403 0.489 0.520 0.531 0.534 0.538
Low human development 0.345 0.381 0.468 0.500 0.507 0.509 0.513

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Data not available before 2017

References

  1. ^ a b "Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  3. ^ Human Development Report 1990 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 1 May 1990. pp. iii, iv, 5, 9, 12. ISBN 0-1950-6481-X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Human Development Report 2019 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. pp. 2–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  6. ^ Ivanova, I.; Arcelus, F. J.; Srinivasan, G. (February 1999). "An Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the Human Development Index". Social Indicators Research. 46 (2): 157–179. doi:10.1023/A:1006839208067. ISSN 0303-8300. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  7. ^ a b Sanderson, Warren; Scherbov, Sergei; Simone, Ghislandi (8 November 2018). "The best country to live in might not be Norway after all". Quartz. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  8. ^ "Troubling tradeoffs in the Human Development Index". Journal of Development Economics. 99 (2): 201–209. 1 November 2012. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.01.003. ISSN 0304-3878. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  9. ^ "The inequality-adjusted human development index: A constructive proposal". World Development. 25 (8): 1283–1298. 1 August 1997. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00034-X. ISSN 0305-750X. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  10. ^ Sharma, Shalendra D. (1 February 1997). "Making the Human Development Index (HDI) gender-sensitive". Gender & Development. 5 (1): 60–61. doi:10.1080/741922304. ISSN 1355-2074. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  11. ^ Human Development Report 2010 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 2010. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-230-28445-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  12. ^ Human development report 1995 (PDF). Oxford University Press for the United Nations Development Programme. 1995. pp. 72–74. ISBN 0-19-510023-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  13. ^ Castles, Ian (1998). "The Mismeasure of Nations: A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 24 (4): 834–836. doi:10.2307/2808029. ISSN 0098-7921. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  14. ^ a b Iñaki, Permanyer; Jeroen, Smits (31 May 2018). "The Subnational Human Development Index: Moving beyond country-level averages". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 291–231. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Human Development Indices (5.0)".
  17. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020.pdf
  18. ^ "Developing regions | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  19. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Human Development Report 2020 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  21. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. p. 350. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.

External links