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A hyperpower is a state that dominates all other states in every domain (i.e. military, culture, economy)[1] and is considered to be a step higher than a superpower. The term often refers to the United States due to its status as the world's current superpower; however, its possible status above that remains a topic of dispute.[2] Currently, the United States is no longer the only uncontested superpower to dominant in every domain (i.e. military, culture, economy, technology, diplomatic).[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] According to the Asia Power Index 2020, the United States still takes the lead on the military capacity, cultural influence, resilience and defense networks, but falls behind China in four parameters of economic resources, future resources, economic relationships and diplomatic influence across eight measures.[11]

History

The British journalist Peregrine Worsthorne coined the term in a Sunday Telegraph article published March 3, 1991.[12] After the end of the Cold War with the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, some political commentators felt that a new term was needed to describe the United States' position (Pax Americana) as the lone superpower.[13][14][15] French foreign minister Hubert Védrine popularized the term in 1998, because from France's position, the United States looked like a hyperpower, although the validity of classifying the United States in this way was disputed.[2]

The term has also been applied retroactively to dominant states of the past. In her book Day of Empire, American professor Amy Chua suggests that the Achaemenid Empire, the Tang dynasty, the Roman Empire, the Mongol Empire, the Dutch Empire, and the British Empire were successful examples of historical hegemons; the Spanish Monarchy, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and Third Reich were counters; and she reflects on assertions that the United States is a modern hyperpower. In a historical context, it is usually understood to mean a power that greatly exceeds any others in its political environment along several axes; Rome did not dominate Persia, Ancient India or China, but did dominate the entire Mediterranean area militarily, culturally, and economically.[16]

References

  1. ^ "Definition of 'hyperpower'". Collins Dictionary. Collins. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "To Paris, U.S. Looks Like a 'Hyperpower'". International Herald Tribune. February 5, 1999. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  3. ^ "Should We Compete With China? Can We?". The Unz Review. 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  4. ^ "Asia Power Index | US". power.lowyinstitute.org. Retrieved 2020-10-20. The United States remains the most powerful country in the region but registered the largest fall in relative power of any Indo–Pacific country in 2020. A ten-point overall lead over China two years ago has been narrowed by half in 2020.
  5. ^ "Patrick Cockburn: The US has faced decline before – but nothing like what's to come". The Independent. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  6. ^ "From Hyperpower to Declining Power". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  7. ^ Walt, Stephen M. "How to Ruin a Superpower". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  8. ^ Hiro, Dilip (2016-10-11). "Think the US Is the Foremost Global Superpower? Think Again". ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  9. ^ "America's innovation edge now in peril, says Baker Institute, American Academy of Arts and Sciences report". news.rice.edu. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  10. ^ "China will overtake US in tech race". OMFIF. 2019-10-22. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  11. ^ Institute, Lowy. "China - Lowy Institute Asia Power Index". Lowy Institute Asia Power Index 2020. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  12. ^ (February 25, 2002). "hyper-power". Word Spy. Logophilia Limited. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  13. ^ Nossal, Kim Richard (June 29, 1999). "Lonely Superpower or Unapologetic Hyperpower?". Saldanha, Western Cape: South African Political Studies Association. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
  14. ^ Reiter, Erich; Hazdra, Peter (March 9, 2013). The Impact of Asian Powers on Global Developments. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 5. ISBN 9-783-6621-3172-5. Now though, some people, in whose opinion the term "superpower" does not denote the actual dominance of the USA incisively enough, use the term "hyperpower".
  15. ^ Cohen, Eliot A. (July 1, 2004). "History and the Hyperpower". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 83 (4): 49. doi:10.2307/20034046. JSTOR 20034046. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  16. ^ Chua, Amy (January 6, 2009). Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance—and Why They Fall. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9-780-3074-7245-8.