Culture of the Caribbean
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|Culture of the Caribbean|
The term Caribbean culture summarises the artistic, musical, literary, culinary, political and social elements that are representative of Caribbean people all over the world. The Caribbean’s culture has historically been influenced by that of African and Amerindian traditions. It has also been strongly influenced by that of its linguistic, economic, and cultural neighbour, the United States.
As a collection of settler nations, the contemporary Caribbean has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of customs, cuisine, and traditions that have marked the socio-cultural development of the area.
Development of Caribbean culture
Caribbean culture results from Caribbean history and geography. Most of the Caribbean territories were inhabited and developed earlier than European colonies (1492- ) in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, farmers, traders and slaves became important in the early development of Caribbean culture. British conquests in the Caribbean in 1759 brought a Francophone population under British rule, requiring compromise and accommodation, while in the 1780s the migration of United Empire Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies
brought in strong British, Spanish, French, African and even Dutch influences.
Although not without conflict, the Caribbean’s early interactions between incoming settlers and the indigenous populations were relatively short-lived, compared to the experience of native peoples in (say) the United States or Brazil. Combined with relatively late economic development in many regions, this difficult history has disallowed Caribbean native peoples from having any strong influence on emergent national cultures, even destroying their remaining identity.[dubious ]
Multicultural heritage is enshrined in many islands. In parts of the Caribbean, multiculturalism itself is the cultural norm and diversity is the force that unites the community. Although officially a quarter of the Caribbean population is English-speaking, the largest linguistic group comprises Spanish speakers (due to the inclusion of mainland Caribbean states), some 22% speak French while only 1% speak Dutch. Though the Caribbean today features 59 living languages these are not spoken in the “insular Caribbean”, but on what is referred to as the “continental Caribbean”.
In the French islands, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking islanders commentators speak of a French culture as distinguished from culture, but some[which?] also see the Caribbean as a collection of several regional, and ethnic subcultures.
While French Caribbean culture is the most obvious example, Spanish influences have allowed the survival of non-English dialects. The influence of Ulster immigrants to Barbados had the effect of minimizing Irish influences in the Caribbean‘s culture, and highlighting British influences instead, until the 1980s. The Caribbean’s Pacific trade has also brought a large Chinese influence into Trinidad and other areas. The East Indians brought to Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, and other parts of the Caribbean as indentured laborers to work on the sugarcane, rice, and cocoa estates brought with them the many languages of India and developed a lingua franca: Caribbean Hindustani.
Major influences on Caribbean identity trace back to the arrival of French settlers (from the early-17th century), English settlers (from the early-17th century) and Spanish settlers (from the late-15th century). Indigenous people played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Caribbean, from their role in assisting exploration, the development of the sugar trade and inter-European power struggles to the formation of the Afro-Caribbean people. Through their art and culture, indigenous Caribbean and African descendants continue to exert influence on the Caribbean identity.
With the gradual loosening of political and cultural ties to the United Kingdom, in the 20th century immigrants from European, African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have shaped Caribbean identity, a process that continues today with the arrival of significant numbers of immigrants from non-British or French backgrounds, adding the theme of multiculturalism to the debate[which?]. As of 2019 the Caribbean has a diverse makeup of nationalities and cultures and constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than a single national myth.
The issue of Caribbean identity remains under scrutiny. In true Caribbean fashion, however, even the search for an identity has itself become an object for self-criticism, usually[quantify] because many Caribbean people confuse reasons for ridding themselves of colonial shackles and compounding the loss of their own Caribbean identity by clinging to an African non-identity in its stead (unnecessary contentious statement).[need quotation to verify][need quotation to verify]
Cultural protectionism in Caribbean
Cultural protectionism in the Caribbean has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Caribbean governments to promote Caribbean cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. Sharing a and (for the majority) a common language with the United States, the Caribbean faces a difficult position in regard to American culture, be it direct attempts at the Caribbean market or the general diffusion of American culture in the globalized media arena. While the Caribbean people try to maintain their cultural differences, they must also balance this with responsibility in trade arrangements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Official symbols of the Caribbean include the parrot, palm, and the shell. Many official symbols of the country such as the have been changed or modified over the past years in order to “Caribbeanize” them and de-emphasise or remove references to the United Kingdom. For example, The Cayman Islands now uses National Symbols that include their indigenous* , , and the .
Symbols of the monarchy in the Caribbean continue to be featured in, for example, the and armed forces.
The works of most early Caribbean painters followed European trends. During the mid-1800s, Caribbean painters have developed a wide range of highly individual styles. The arts have flourished in Caribbean since the 1900s, and especially since the end of World War II in 1945.
The Washington Organization of American States (inaugurated in 1976) houses one of the oldest 20th-century art collections representing the Caribbean. For example, one exhibit showcased works included two important pieces by women artists of the Caribbean: El vendedor de andullo (Tobacco Vendor), 1938, by modernist Celeste Woss y Gil of the Dominican Republic, and an oil painting entitled Marpacífico (Hibiscus-Marpacífico is the name used in Cuba for the hibiscus flower), 1943, by Cuban modernist Amelia Peláez. There have even been a rare selection of prints by Haitian artists such as Castera Bazile, Wilson Bigaud, Dieudonné Cedor, Jacques-Enguerrand Gourgue and , that have not been exhibited since they were part of a traveling exhibition in 1948.
Caribbean literature is often divided into Spanish, French and English-language literature, which are rooted in the literary traditions of Spain, France and Britain, respectively. However, collectively this literature has become distinctly Caribbean. Caribbean literature, whether written in English, French or Spanish, or in a creole language, often reflects the Caribbean perspective on nature, life, and the region’s position in the world, Caribbean identity is closely tied to its literature. Caribbean literature is often categorised by ; by the status of the author (e.g., literature of Caribbean women, Europeans, Asian peoples, and Irish Caribbeans); and by literary period, such as “Caribbean postmoderns” or “Caribbean Poets Between the Wars”. The East Indians have also preserved their Indian literature and brought religious Hindu texts such as the Itihasa (Ramayana, Mahabharta, Bhagavad Gita), Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads, Tirumurai, Naalayira Divya Prabhandham, Shastras, Sutras. The Sikhs also brought their Guru Granth Sahib with them. The Muslims also brought their Quran with them.
Caribbean authors have won numerous awards. Mark McWatt won Best First Book Award in the 2006 Commonwealth Writers’ Prize for the Caribbean region for his work of fiction Suspended Sentences: Fictions of Atonement. Sir V. S. Naipaul won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001 and the Man Booker Prize in 1971, and was awarded the Trinity Cross of Trinidad and Tobago.
The annual celebration of carnival is an important part of Caribbean culture. Traditionally, most Caribbean islands celebrate carnival on Ash Wednesday or the days leading up to Lent.
The music of the Caribbean reflects the multi-cultural influences that have shaped the Caribbean and these are mainly African. The first historical figures to influence Caribbean musicians were from the South Americas and to some degree Africa. Nevertheless, the Caribbean’s first peoples, the East Indias, the Chinese, the Arabs, the Jews, the Spanish, the French, the British, the Portuguese, the Danish, the Dutch, Germans, and the Italians have all made large contributions to the musical heritage of Caribbean as well. Since Spanish explorer Columbus arrived and established the permanent colonies, the islands have produced their own , and ensembles. From the 17th century onwards, the Caribbean has developed a music infrastructure that includes church halls, performing arts centers, record companies, radio stations and television music video channels. The music has subsequently been heavily influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two regions.
The Caribbean has produced a variety of internationally successful performers and artists. These individuals are honoured at The Awards, recognizing Caribbean achievement in popular music. In addition, the Caribbean is home to a number of popular summertime folk festivals. The Caribbean has also produced many notable composers, who have contributed in a variety of ways to the history of Western classical music.
The Caribbean is home to the Indo-Caribbean musical form of Chutney. It was created in Trinidad and Tobago by Sundar Popo. The Caribbean is also home to the Indo-Caribbean musical form of Baithak Gana that originated in Suriname.
There are the Anthony N Sabga Caribbean Awards for Excellence (ANSCAFE) launched in October 2005 to awards in the Arts (and other areas). Up to 2010, they were made biennially, but as of 2011, the awards will be made yearly in ceremonies in Trinidad.
Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham (late President of Guyana) facilitated the first Caribbean Festival of the Arts (CARIFESTA) in 1972 in Georgetown, Guyana.
The Caribbean has a thriving stage theatre scene. Judy Stone writes: “In addition to the conventional drama of social realism and the yard theatre, the range includes popular farce and roots theatre, musical folk theatre, pantomime, community theatre, Jamaica’s Gun Court theatre, political theatre, church theatre, children’s theatre, storytelling, the street theatre of Carnival and carnival theatre, calypso theatre, theatre of ritual, and the poetic theatre of St Lucia’s Derek Walcott. There is also a considerable body of dramatic work written for film, television and radio. Cuba, in particular, has a comparatively vibrant film industry.” Theatre festivals draw many tourists in the tourist months. As an example – Ruprecht argues that Creole Theatre would take one on a tour to a chain of islands in the Caribbean, and he offers an analysis of the contemporary Creole theatre of the Caribbean and of the work of some of the playwrights associated with Creole theatre, such as Frankétienne and Cavé in Haiti, José Exélis and Arthur Lérus in Guadeloupe, as well as Boukman and Placoly of Martinique.
The Trinidad Theatre Workshop (established in 1959).
Film and television
The Caribbean film market was dominated by the American film industry for decades, although that film industry has since inception seen a prominent role for actors, directors, producers and technicians of Caribbean origin. Filmmakers from the Caribbean began to challenge Hollywood by making innovative and relevant documentary, dramas and feature films.
Some Caribbean islands have developed a small but vigorous film industry that has produced a variety of well-known films, actors, and auteurs. Also, the distinct French-Caribbean and Spanish-Caribbean society permits the work of directors to contribute very different film-forms. Some have become the Caribbean’s first films to win the . Many Caribbean people are employed in the film industry, and celebrity-spotting is frequent throughout many Caribbean cities.
Caribbean television, especially supported by the Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation, is the home of a variety of locally produced shows. French- and Spanish-language television, is buffered from excessive American influence by the fact of language, and likewise supports a host of home-grown productions. The success of French and Spanish-language domestic television and movies in Caribbean often exceeds that of its English-language counterpart.
Caribbean Media Awards honor the best feature broadcast placements, print and photography from Caribbean-based media outlets.
Caribbean humour is an integral part of the Caribbean identity. There are several traditions in Caribbean humour in English, Spanish and French. While these traditions are distinct and at times very different, there are common themes that relate to Caribbeans’ shared history and geopolitical situation in North America and the world. Various trends can be noted in Caribbean comedy. One trend is the portrayal of a “typical” Caribbean family in an ongoing radio or television series. Examples include a mix of drama, humour, politics, religion, and sitcoms. Another major trend tends to be political and cultural satire: television shows such as , monologuists and writers, draw their inspiration from Caribbean society and politics. Another trend revels in absurdity and musician-comedians. Satire is arguably the primary characteristic of Caribbean humour, evident in each of these threads, and uniting various genres and regional cultural differences. Caribbean humour has taken on a modern interpretation, due to the advent of social media and the rise of many popular comedians that hail from the Caribbean and the Caribbean diaspora.
In 1957, mento artist Lord Flea stated that: “West Indians have the best sense of humor in the world. Even the most solemn song, like ‘Las Kean Fine’ (‘Lost and Can Not Be Found’), which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humor shine though.”
Association Football (Soccer) is the most popular sport in almost all Caribbean countries.
Cricket is a very popular sport in the countries and dependencies that formed the British West Indies. The West Indies cricket team competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indies’ major domestic competitions are the Regional Four Day Competition (first-class) and the Regional Super50 (List A one-day) and more recently the Caribbean Premier League (Twenty20).
The regional football governing body is the Caribbean Football Union. National teams have competed in the CFU Championship from 1978 to 1988 and the Caribbean Cup since 1989. The top 4 teams in the tournament qualify for the CONCACAF Gold Cup. Cuba qualified to the FIFA World Cup in 1938, Haiti in 1974, Jamaica in 1998 and Trinidad and Tobago in 2006.
The CFU Club Championship is the regional tournament for football clubs. The winner qualified for the CONCACAF Champions’ Cup from 1997 until 2008. Since 2008-09, the top 3 clubs qualify for a preliminary round of the CONCACAF Champions League.
However, the most popular sport in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and the Netherlands Antilles is baseball. The Caribbean Series, held since 1949, features the national champions from the top Caribbean leagues. The Cuban national team has claimed the Baseball World Cup 25 times, whereas the Dominican Republic won the 2013 World Baseball Classic. In the Pan American Games, Cuba has won 12 editions and Dominican Republic once, whereas Puerto Rico earned the silver medal twice. In the Central American and Caribbean Games, Cuba has won 15 gold medals, whereas Dominican Republic has won three and Puerto Rico two. Several Caribbean players have joined the Major League Baseball: in the 2014 there were 82 Dominicans, 19 Cubans and 11 Puerto Ricans. Notable Caribbean players are Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Roberto Clemente, Orlando Cepeda and Roberto Alomar.
The Puerto Rico men’s national basketball team finished fourth in the 1990 FIBA World Championship and won three FIBA Americas Championships and two Pan American Games. Meanwhile, the Cuba women’s national basketball team finished third in the 1990 FIBA World Championship for Women and won three FIBA Americas Championships and three Pan American Games.
Other popular team sports in the Caribbean include rugby union and softball. Popular individual sports include auto racing, boxing, cycling, golf, hiking, horse racing, skateboarding, swimming, tennis, triathlon, track and field, water sports, and wrestling.
Cuba ranks second in Olympic boxing and fifth in judo, whereas Jamaica has been a power in Olympic sprint running. At the Pan American Games, Cuba ranks second in the medal table, Dominican Republic ranks 10th, Puerto Rico 11th and Jamaica 13th. At the Central American and Caribbean Games, Cuba ranks first, Puerto Rico fifth, Dominican Republic sixth, Jamaica seventh and Trinidad and Tobago 11th.
The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Kingston, Jamaica.
As an area with a , the Caribbean countries have enjoyed greater success at the Summer Olympics than at the Winter Olympics. However, the Jamaica national bobsleigh team has qualified to the Winter Olympic Games since 1988. Other notable Caribbean competitors at the Winter Games are Erroll Fraser, Dow Travers, George Tucker and Anne Abernathy.
The Caribbean Awards Sports Icons (CASI) are based on accomplishments made over the last 60 years (1948–2008), for those who have made their mark in the various fields of sports.
Great achievements in Caribbean sport are recognized by , while trophies are awarded annually to top athletes by a panel of journalists.
Popular dishes in the Caribbean reflect the cultures that have influenced the region – Indigenous, African, European, Indian, and Chinese. One dish common to many Caribbean countries is pelau, a mixture of saltfish, beef, rice and peas, pigeon peas, and other vegetables. A prominent African-influenced Caribbean dish, callaloo, combines leafy greens with okra.
Childs, Becky; Wolfram, Walt (2008). “Bahamian English: phonology”. In Schneider, Edgar W. (ed.). The Americas and the Caribbean. Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W.: Varieties of English. 2. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 241. ISBN 9783110208405. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
After the American Revolutionary War in the 1780s, many British loyalists fled the newly formed United States for both the major islands and the out islands of The Bahamas.
Compare for example:
Castanha, Tony (2010). The Myth of Indigenous Caribbean Extinction: Continuity and Reclamation in Borikén (Puerto Rico). New York: Springer. ISBN 9780230116405. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- Paul, L. M. (ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th edn, Dallas, Texas (2009).
- Aceto, Michael, and Jeffrey P. Williams (eds), Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean, Varieties of English around the World, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2003.
- Solomon, Denis, The Speech of Trinidad: A Reference Grammar, St. Augustine: School of Continuing Studies, University of the West Indies (1993).
- Corne, C., From French to Creole: The Development of New Vernaculars in the French Colonial World, London: University of Westminster Press (1999).
- McWhorter, J. H., The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact, Los Angeles: University of California Press (2000).
- Allsopp, R., Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, with a French and Spanish Supplement, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1996).
- Trouillot, Michel-Rolph “The Caribbean Region: An Open Frontier in Anthropological Theory,” Annual Review of Anthropology 21 (1992).
- Premdas, R. and Williams, H., “Self-Determination and Secession in the Caribbean: The Case of Tobago”, Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism (1992).
- Richardson, B. C., The Caribbean in the Wider World 1492–1992, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1992).
- Knight, F. W., and C. A. Palmer, “The Caribbean” in The Modern Caribbean, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press (1989).
- Lowenthal, David, West Indian Societies, Oxford: Oxford University Press (1972).
- Premdas, R. R., “The Anatomy of Ethnic Conflict” in The Enigma of Ethnicity: An Analysis of Race and Ethnicity in the Caribbean and the World, Trinidad: University of the West Indies Press (1993).
- The National Symbols: Flora and Fauna of the Cayman Islands Study Guide
- Arnold, J. A. (ed.), A History of Literature in the Caribbean vol. I & II, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publ. Co. (2001).
- Fenwick, M. J., Writers of the Caribbean and Central American vol. I & II, London: Garland Publ. (1992).
- Lanham, M. G., Caribbean Literature: A bibliography, London: Scarecrow Press (1998).
- Dance, D. C., Fifty Caribbean Writers, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1986).
- Allan, E., Anglophone Caribbean Poetry, 1970-2001: an annotated bibliography, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (2002).
- Airia, Cesar, Diccionáirio de Autores Latinoamericanos, Buenos Aires: Emece (2001).
- Judy S. J. Stone, “Caribbean drama”, in Colin Chambers (ed.), The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre (London, 2002). Retrieved from Drama Online.
- Ruprecht, Alvina, Les Theatres Francophones et Creolophones de la Caraibe. Paris: L’Harmattan (2003).
- Corsbie, Ken, Theatre in the Caribbean, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 60 pp. (1984).
- Banham, M., E. Hill, and G. W. Woodward, The Cambridge Guide to African and Caribbean Theatre, Cambridge: University Press, 261 pp. (1994).
- Omotoso, Kole, The Theatrical into Theatre: A Study of the Drama and Theatre in the English-speaking Caribbean, London (1982).
- Michael Garnice (11 March 2012). “Mento Music Lord Flea”. Retrieved 14 April 2013.