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Cranberry juice

Cranberry juice is the liquid juice of the cranberry, typically manufactured to contain sugar, water, and other fruit juices. Cranberry – a fruit native to North America – is recognized for its bright red color, unique, tart taste, and versatility for product manufacturing. Major cranberry products include dried cranberry, cranberry sauce, frozen cranberry, cranberry powder, and cranberry juice.[1]

The term "cranberry juice cocktail" or "cranberry juice blend" refers to products that contain about 28% cranberry juice, with the remainder either from other fruit juice concentrates (typically grape, apple or pear), water, and added sugar to improve palatability. Low-calorie cranberry juice products use non-caloric sweeteners. The tartness of cranberry juice derives from its mixed content of polyphenols, including flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and ellagitannins.[2]

Despite a long-held reputation for providing antibacterial activity against urinary tract infections (UTIs), cranberry juice has no such proven effects,[1] as determined by a Cochrane review of completed clinical research[3] and a scientific panel for the European Food Safety Authority which concluded a cause and effect relationship could not be established between cranberry consumption and risk of UTIs.[4]

Nutrition and composition

A cup of standard 100% cranberry juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, contains vitamin C as an ingredient to preserve freshness, with other micronutrients that may be added during manufacturing.[5] Cranberry juice is an acidic drink with a typical pH between 2.3 and 2.5.

One half cup of cranberry juice provides 60 calories, 20% of the Daily Value for vitamin C, and counts as one-half of a fruit serving toward the United State MyPlate daily nutrition guide.[6]

Effect on health

Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection

In 2008, there was tentative evidence that long-term use of cranberry juice might help prevent symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), but this finding was refuted in 2012 with a conclusion that "14 further studies suggest that cranberry juice is less effective than previously indicated," and "cranberry juice cannot currently be recommended for the prevention of UTIs."[3] The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the evidence and concluded a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of cranberry products and reducing the risk of UTIs.[4]

One systematic review in 2017 showed that cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of UTIs, indicating that cranberry products may be effective particularly for individuals with recurrent infections.[7] When the quality of meta-analyses on the efficacy of cranberry products for preventing or treating UTIs was examined, large variation was evident, resulting from inconsistencies in clinical research methods.[8]

In September 2017, Ocean Spray, a major cranberry juice manufacturer, submitted a health claim petition to the FDA. According to the FDA's February 2018 response letter, the company had "requested that FDA authorize a health claim for the relationship between the consumption of cranberry juice products and a reduced risk of recurrent urinary tract infection in healthy women." The FDA stated that they would consider the petition for a "qualified health claim."[9] This type of health claim label does not require "significant scientific agreement" as the FDA's label with a higher standard, the "authorized health claim," does. Rather, "qualified health claims" only require that the claim be "supported by some scientific evidence." These types of health claims also do not need to "meet the significant scientific agreement standard" and must be accompanied by a disclaimer stating that there is insufficient evidence of the product affecting a disease, such as UTI.[10] Further FDA guidance in 2019 notified cranberry juice manufacturers that added sugars necessary for making the juice appealing to consumers had to be declared on the nutrition facts panel of product labels, and the amount of sugar used would be reviewed by the FDA under its "enforcement discretion".[11]

In October 2018, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's recommendation for self-care for lower UTIs in people aged 16 and over states that "no evidence was found on cranberry products or urine alkalinising agents to treat lower UTI".[12]

Dental health

There is no high-quality evidence that cranberry juice affects gum health by preventing bacterial adhesion within oral epithelium tissue and preventing dental plaque accumulation. Cranberry juice is acidic, with a pH level between 2.3 and 2.5, a level of acidity that may erode tooth enamel.[13]

Manufacturing and processing

Wet harvesting of cranberries

Manufacturing

Cranberries are a kind of tart red berry produced by various plant species, but it is the large-fruited, or “American cranberry” (Vaccinium macrocarpon), that is farmed for commercial production.[14] Currently, the main cranberry farming Canadian provinces are British Columbia, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.[14] However, the lower temperatures present in the Eastern provinces require the use of irrigation and flooding to prevent frost damage and moisture loss.[15] Wet harvesting is the common harvesting method used for cranberries that are to become cranberry juice.[16] A paddled machine called a water reel harvester is used to separate the ripe cranberries from the vines, then collected through a large suction pipe and transported by truck to a processing plant. At the processing plant, the cranberries go through a sequence of fruit crushing, mash maceration, mash heating, juice pressing, and pasteurization to produce a cranberry concentrate that is separated from pulp.[17][18] To prepare a cranberry juice/cocktail product, cranberry juice concentrate is reconstituted with varying amounts of water, specified by the solicitation, contract, or purchase order.[16]

Pest management

During growth, cranberry quality can be affected by various pests including: weeds, insects, mites, vertebrate animals, and diseases, resulting in the need for physical, biological or chemical treatments to reduce these impacts.[14] Canada has a "Pesticide Risk Reduction Program" where Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency work to confront the dangers pesticides pose to the environment and human health.[15] Flooding and irrigation often remain the best technique to deter pesticide resistant pests in the cranberry cultivation process.[15]

Sterilization

Traditionally, cranberry juice is commercially sterilized though thermal processing to eliminate any pathogenic or spoilage-causing microorganisms and spores.[19] The prepared cranberry juice product is heat treated by high temperature-short time (HTST) or ultra-high temperature (UHT) techniques and packaged into aseptic, hermetically-sealed containers.[19] During thermal processing, the cranberry juice receives a heat treatment time equivalent to a 5-log pathogen reduction.[20] Often, the bacterium Clostridium botulinum is given special attention during thermal processing techniques of food.[19] However, C. botulinum does not grow and produce toxins below a pH of 4.6 and cranberry juice is classified as a high-acid food with a pH of 2.3 to 2.9.[19][21]

Improved sterilization

In 2017, new methods of cranberry juice processing included high pressure processing (HHP) and pulsified electric fields (PEF) technology. HHP treatment involves applying pressure (80,000 psi or 550 MPa) to cranberry juice for 1 to 9 minutes to eliminate any harmful bacteria, moulds and viruses.[22][23] The resulting raw cranberry juice, without thermal processing, is classified as a novel food item by Health Canada.[22] PEF treatment involves generating a high-intensity electric field inducing a flux of electrical current to flow through the food product to eliminate harmful microorganisms.[24] PEF treated cranberry juice does not alter the flavour, colour, or aroma profile of the cranberries used, unlike the traditional thermally processed method.[25]

Additives

Naturally, cranberries are low in sugar content and have a tart or astringent taste.[26] As a result, unsweetened cranberry juice is generally considered unpalatable by consumers.[26] To make the juice more palatable to consumers, the tart flavor can be changed by blending with other fruit juices or the addition of sugar or sugar substitutes.[26]

Packaging

All cranberry juice products are required to be packed in aseptic, hermetically seal containers (plastic bottles, cans, cartons) in accordance with good manufacturing practices of their country.[27][28] The typical container size used are 11.5 or 64 fluid ounce, and each must be filled with the product by at least 90 percent.[28] Cranberry juice products should also not be packaged more than 90 days prior to their delivery, unless specified in the order.[27] Ocean Spray and Fruit d'Or cranberry juice products have a frozen shelf life of 24 months and 36 months, respectively.[29][30]

Labeling

Cranberry juice container labels have the following information printed: product name and code, nutrition facts table, lot/drum number, date of packaging, brix, acidity, net weight, manufacturer name, manufacturer address and country of origin.[29][30] According to Canada's composition claims, a "no preservatives" claim can be added to cranberry juice products if it only contains naturally-occurring constituents that provide a preservative function such as benzoates.[31]

Standards/Regulations

Canada

For Canadian markets, cranberry juice is regulated as a processed product under fruit juices.[32] Cranberry juice must be made from sound, clean, and ripe cranberries. One or more of the following dry sweetening ingredients may be added: sugar, invert sugar, and dextrose.[32][33] According to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the common name of this product may appear as “cranberry juice drink/cooler” if at least 25% of the named juice is contained within the net quantity of the product.[34]

In Canada, cranberries are graded into two categories: Canada No. 1 and Canada Domestic. The cranberries of Canada No. 1 grade are required to be fairly clean; be uniform in size; and free from any damage and/or defect that affects the appearance, edibility, or shipment quality.[35] The cranberries of Canada Domestic grade are required to be reasonably clean; and be free from any damage and/or defect that seriously affects the appearance, edibility, or shipment quality.[35] Furthermore, all grades must be properly packaged; be sound; have a minimum surface area of 65% coloured red; and be free of insects and insect larvae.[35]

United States

For US markets, cranberry juice from concentrate is a blended mixture of cranberry juice or cranberry juice concentrate, water, sweeteners, and ascorbic acid.[36][37] The cranberry juice or concentrate in the mixture must be produced from clean, sound, mature, well-colored, and washed, fresh or frozen cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon).[36][37] One or more of the following sweetening ingredients may be added: sucrose, liquid sugar, invert sugar syrup, or high fructose corn syrup (40% or greater).[36][37] The use of food additives (color, flavours, or acids) into cranberry juice depends on the percentage of cranberry juice or concentrate by volume.[36] Cranberry juice mixtures with 25% or 27% contain none of the mentioned additives, except for ascorbic acid. Cranberry juice mixtures with 22% contain no added color or flavors, but citric acid may be added. Cranberry juice mixtures with 20% may contain color, flavors, and citric acid.[36] The finished cranberry juice from concentrate product should yield a minimum of one part cranberry juice concentrate to three parts water with a minimum Brix level of 12°.[36][37] Additionally, each cranberry juice product should be fortified with Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), with each serving size delivering not less than 100% of the current US Referenced Daily Intake.[36][37] The minimum titratable acidity of the cranberry juice product must be 1.67% wt/wt, measured as citric acid.[37]

Interaction with blood thinners

Cranberry juice may interfere with coumarins used as blood thinners, such as warfarin, causing an unstable INR.[1][38] The British National Formulary (BNF) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) both advise avoiding concomitant use.[39][40]

Market

Commercially cultivated in the United States and Canada, cranberries are harvested in the autumn for manufacturing of juice and other products.[41][42] A barrel of US cranberries weighing 100 pounds (45 kg) cost US$ 57.60 in 2017, but the price fell to $22.30 per barrel in 2019 due to international trade wars with the United States, causing the market to shift to more purchases from Canada.[43]

Including cranberries used for juice production, Americans consume some 400 million pounds (180 million kg) of cranberries per year.[41] About 95% of the annual US cranberry harvest is used to make juice or juice blends.[41] Wisconsin was the leading producer of cranberries in the United States in 2017.[41] Cranberries and juice concentrate exported from the United States were the objects of imposed tariffs during trade wars with the European Union, China, Mexico, and Canada over the period 2017-19.[43][44]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Blumberg, JB; Camesano, TA; Cassidy, A; Kris-Etherton, P; Howell, A; Manach, C; Ostertag, LM; Sies, H; Skulas-Ray, A; Vita, JA (2013). "Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health". Advances in Nutrition. 4 (6): 618–32. doi:10.3945/an.113.004473. ISSN 2161-8313. PMC 3823508. PMID 24228191.
  3. ^ a b Jepson, RG; Williams, G; Craig, JC (2012). "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10 (10): CD001321. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5. PMID 23076891. CD001321.
  4. ^ a b EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (May 2014). "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 12 (5). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3657. 3657.
  5. ^ "Cranberry juice blend, 100% juice, bottled, with added vitamin C and calcium". ndb.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-13.
  6. ^ "Cranberry juice concentrate, sweetened, canned" (PDF). Household USDA Food Facts. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  7. ^ Luís, Â; Domingues, F; Pereira, L (10 March 2017). "Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials". Journal of Urology. 198 (3): 614–621. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.078. PMID 28288837.
  8. ^ Liska, D. J.; Kern, H. J.; Maki, K. C. (2016). "Cranberries and Urinary Tract Infections: How Can the Same Evidence Lead to Conflicting Advice?". Advances in Nutrition. 7 (3): 498–506. doi:10.3945/an.115.011197. PMC 4863270. PMID 27184277.
  9. ^ "Regulations.gov". www.regulations.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  10. ^ Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied. "Labeling & Nutrition - Questions and Answers on Health Claims in Food Labeling". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
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  15. ^ a b c "Crop Profile for Cranberry in Canada" (PDF). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
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  17. ^ Narwojsz, Agnieszka (2010). "Cranberry and Strawberry Juices - Influence of Method Production on Antioxidants Content and Antioxidative Capacity" (PDF). Polish Journal of Natural Sciences. 25 (2): 209–214. doi:10.2478/v10020-010-0018-6.
  18. ^ Sinha, Nirmal (2012). "Manufacturing Fruit Beverages and Concentrates". Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. John WIley & Sons. Ltd. pp. 213–228. doi:10.1002/9781118352533.ch13. ISBN 9781118352533.
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  20. ^ "Ocean Spray Quality Operating Guidelines" (PDF). Ocean Spray. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  21. ^ "Cranberry Juice Product Description" (PDF). Fruit d'Or. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
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  32. ^ a b Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Processed Products Regulations". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-12.
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  37. ^ a b c d e f "Commodity Specification: Bottled Juices" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  38. ^ Aston, Jonathan L.; Lodolce, Amy E.; Shapiro, Nancy L. (2006). "Interaction Between Warfarin and Cranberry Juice". Pharmacotherapy. 26 (9): 1314–1319. doi:10.1592/phco.26.9.1314. PMID 16945054. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  39. ^ British National Formulary (66 ed.). London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. 2014. p. 889.
  40. ^ "Coumadin Tablets (Warfarin Sodium Tablets, USP) Crystalline Coumadin for Injection (Warfarin Sodium for Injection, USP)" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  41. ^ a b c d "Cranberries". Agriculture Marketing Resource Center, US Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  42. ^ "Canadian cranberries". Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  43. ^ a b Adrian Ma (6 October 2019). "How The Trade War Crushed A Growing Chinese Market For U.S. Cranberries". US National Public Radio. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  44. ^ Tom Karst (22 June 2018). "EU tariffs begin for cranberry juice concentrate". The Packer. Retrieved 10 October 2019.